Gadolinium

Previous Element: Europium

Next Element: Terbium
64

Gd

157.25
Physical Properties
Color silvery-white
Phase at Room Temp. solid
Density (g/cm3) 7.886
Hardness (Mohs) ---
Melting Point (K) 1584.2
Boiling Point (K) 3273
Heat of Fusion (kJ/mol) 15.5
Heat of Vaporization (kJ/mol) 301
Heat of Atomization (kJ/mol) 398
Thermal Conductivity (J/m sec K) 10.5
Electrical Conductivity (1/mohm cm) 7.9
Source Monazite (phosphate), bastnaesite
Atomic Properties
Electron Configuration [Xe]6s24f75d1
Number of Isotopes 39 (7 natural)
Electron Affinity (kJ/mol) 50
First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 592.6
Second Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 1167
Third Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 1991
Electronegativity 1.17
Polarizability (Å3) 23.5
Atomic Weight 157.25
Atomic Volume (cm3/mol) 19.9
Ionic Radius2- (pm) ---
Ionic Radius1- (pm) ---
Atomic Radius (pm) 180
Ionic Radius1+ (pm) ---
Ionic Radius2+ (pm) ---
Ionic Radius3+ (pm) 107.8
Common Oxidation Numbers +3
Other Oxid. Numbers +1, +2
Abundance
In Earth's Crust (mg/kg) 6.2×100
In Earth's Ocean (mg/L) 7.0×10-7
In Human Body (%) ---
Regulatory / Health
CAS Number 7440-54-2
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) No limit
OSHA PEL Vacated 1989 No limit
NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) No limit
Sources:
University of Wisconsin General Chemistry
Mineral Information Institute
Jefferson Accelerator Laboratory
EnvironmentalChemistry.com
 
Glossary

Citation

(2006). Gadolinium. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbedd47896bb431f6943b2

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