Greenhouse Gas Control Policies in Mexico
Overall GHG emission target and timing
Mexico voluntarily plans to cut national GHG emissions by 50 million tons per year beginning in 2012, constituting approximately 8% of Mexico’s net GHG emissions in 2008. The government has established a non-binding goal to reduce GHG by 50% by 2050 (to 340 million tons of CO2) below 2000 emissions. The pledge is contingent on availability of international technical and financial support and on successful negotiation of an international agreement consistent with stabilizing CO2-equivalent concentrations at 450 parts per million. Mexico foresees converging by 2050 on global average emissions per capita at or below 2.8 tons of CO2 annually.
Principal Policy Instruments
In 2007, the Government of Mexico set out a Strategy on Climate Change (NSCC) that identified GHG mitigation opportunities, and vulnerability and adaptation policies. The ensuing Mexico Climate Change Program (MCCP) sets 85 specific goals for mitigating GHG in four emission categories and 12 subcategories. In December 2008, Mexican President Felipe Calderon announced his intention to cap Mexican greenhouse gas emissions and allow GHG trading, beginning with state-owned energy producers. Mexico envisions eventually being part of a domestically regulated but internationally integrated North American GHG trading system. Mexico mainly promotes energy efficiency (including greater co-generation of heat and power by industrial sources) and renewable energy production, along with prevention of further deforestation, as its mitigation priorities. Principal instruments include Law for the Better Use of Renewable Energy and the Financing of Energy Transition (2007 or 2008) provide a number of legal energy reforms, including provisions that lay the groundwork for private investment in renewable electricity generation. The Law for the Sustainable Use of Energy created a three-stage program to 2050. It, inter alia, promotes renewable energy and energy efficiency. It also requires energy efficiency in all federal, state and local governments.
Covered Gases and Sectors
Six Kyoto Protocol gases. The cap-and-trade system under development is likely to cover energy production (oil and gas, refining, electricity), metals, chemicals, textiles, and cement. Analysis is underway to include a cap-and-trade program for vehicle fuel efficiencies as well.
Allocation of GHG reductions to various sectors
Not yet determined.
Regulations or exemptions specific to trade-sensitive sectors
Motor Vehicles: The stringency of Mexico’s vehicle efficiency standards was increased in 2004 to a mix of U.S. and European standards for different classes of vehicles.
Oil and Gas Production, Refining and Distribution: PEMEX, Mexico’s state-owned petroleum company, has operated an internal carbon cap-and-trade system since 1998.
- ^ This section was prepared by Jane A. Leggett, Specialist in Environmental and Energy Policy, Congressional Research Service
- ^ North American Leaders’ Declaration on Climate Change and Clean Energy, August 10, 2009. Available at http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?category=5&id=2724.
Note: The first version of this article was drawn from R40936 An Overview of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Control Policies in Various Countries by Jane A. Leggett, Richard K. Lattanzio, Carl Ek, and Larry Parker, Congressional Research Service, November 30, 2009.
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