Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has prepared answers about Leishmaniasis, its vector, and the organism (Leishmaniasp., a group of trypanosome protozoa) that causes this parasitic disease.
What is leishmaniasis?
Leishmaniasis (LEASH-ma-NIGH-a-sis) is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common forms are cutaneous (cue-TAY-knee-us) leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral (VIS-er-al) leishmaniasis, which affects some of the internal organs of the body (for example, spleen, liver, bone marrow).
What are the signs and symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis?
People who have cutaneous leishmaniasis have one or more sores on their skin. The sores can change in size and appearance over time. They often end up looking somewhat like a volcano, with a raised edge and central crater. Some sores are covered by a scab. The sores can be painless or painful. Some people have swollen glands near the sores (for example, under the arm if the sores are on the arm or hand).
What are the signs and symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis?
People who have visceral leishmaniasis usually have fever, weight loss, and an enlarged spleen and liver (usually the spleen is bigger than the liver). Some patients have swollen glands. Certain blood tests are abnormal. For example, patients usually have low blood counts, including a low red blood cell count (anemia), low white blood cell count, and low platelet count.
How common is leishmaniasis?
The number of new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year in the world is thought to be about 1.5 million. The number of new cases of visceral leishmaniasis is thought to be about 500,000.
In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found?
Leishmaniasis is found in parts of about 88 countries. Approximately 350 million people live in these areas. Most of the affected countries are in the tropics and subtropics. The settings in which leishmaniasis is found range from rain forests in Central and South America to deserts in West Asia. More than 90 percent of the world's cases of visceral leishmaniasis are in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil.
Leishmaniasis is found in some parts of the following areas:
- in Mexico, Central America, and South America – from northern Argentina to Texas (not in Uruguay, Chile, or Canada)
- southern Europe (leishmaniasis is not common in travelers to southern Europe)
- Asia (not Southeast Asia)
- the Middle East
- Africa (particularly East and North Africa, with some cases elsewhere)
Leishmaniasis is not found in Australia or Oceania (that is, islands in the Pacific, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia).
Could I get leishmaniasis in the United States?
Probably not. It is possible but very unlikely that you would get leishmaniasis in the United States. Very rarely, people living in Texas have developed skin sores from cutaneous leishmaniasis.
No cases of visceral leishmaniasis are known to have been acquired in the United States.
How is leishmaniasis spread?
Leishmaniasis is spread by the bite of some types of phlebotomine sand flies. Sand flies become infected by biting an infected animal (for example, a rodent or dog) or person. Since sand flies do not make noise when they fly, people may not realize they are present. Sand flies are very small and may be hard to see; they are only about one-third the size of typical mosquitoes. Sand flies usually are most active in twilight, evening, and night-time hours (from dusk to dawn). Sand flies are less active during the hottest time of the day. However, they will bite if they are disturbed, such as when a person brushes up against the trunk of a tree where sand flies are resting. Rarely, leishmaniasis is spread from a pregnant woman to her baby. Leishmaniasis also can be spread by blood transfusions or contaminated needles.
Who is at risk for leishmaniasis?
People of all ages are at risk for leishmaniasis if they live or travel where leishmaniasis is found. Leishmaniasis usually is more common in rural than urban areas; but it is found in the outskirts of some cities. The risk for leishmaniasis is highest from dusk to dawn because this is when sand flies are the most active. All it takes to get infected is to be bitten by one infected sand fly. This is more likely to happen the more people are bitten, that is, the more time they spend outside in rural areas from dusk to dawn. Adventure travelers, Peace Corps volunteers, missionaries, ornithologists (people who study birds), other people who do research outdoors at night, and soldiers are examples of people who may have an increased risk for leishmaniasis (especially cutaneous leishmaniasis).
If I were bitten by an infected sand fly, how quickly would I become sick?
People with cutaneous leishmaniasis usually develop skin sores within a few weeks (sometimes as long as months) of when they were bitten.
People with visceral leishmaniasis usually become sick within several months (rarely as long as years) of when they were bitten.
Can leishmaniasis be a serious disease if not treated?
Yes, it can be. The skin sores of cutaneous leishmaniasis will heal on their own, but this can take months or even years. The sores can leave ugly scars. If not treated, infection that started in the skin rarely spreads to the nose or mouth and causes sores there (mucosal leishmaniasis). This can happen with some of the types of the parasite found in Central and South America. Mucosal leishmaniasis might not be noticed until years after the original skin sores healed. The best way to prevent mucosal leishmaniasis is to treat the cutaneous infection before it spreads.
If not treated, visceral leishmaniasis can cause death.
What should I do if I think I might have leishmaniasis?
See your health care provider, particularly if you have traveled to an area where leishmaniasis is found and you have developed skin sores that aren't healing. Be sure to tell your health care provider where you have traveled and that you might be at risk for leishmaniasis.
It is very rare for travelers to get visceral leishmaniasis.
How will my health care provider know if I have leishmaniasis?
The first step is to find out if you have traveled to a part of the world where leishmaniasis is found. Your health care provider will ask you about any signs or symptoms of leishmaniasis you may have, such as skin sores that have not healed. If you have skin sores, your health care provider will likely want to take some samples directly from the sores. These samples can be examined for the parasite under a microscope, in cultures, and through other means. A blood test for detecting antibody (immune response) to the parasite can be helpful, particularly for cases of visceral leishmaniasis. However, tests to look for the parasite itself should also be done. CDC staff can help with the laboratory testing. Diagnosing leishmaniasis can be difficult. Sometimes the laboratory tests are negative even if a person has leishmaniasis.
How is leishmaniasis treated?
Your health care provider can talk with CDC staff about whether your case of leishmaniasis should be treated, and, if so, how. Most people who have cutaneous leishmaniasis do not need to be hospitalized during their treatment.
How is leishmaniasis prevented?
The best way for travelers to prevent leishmaniasis is by protecting themselves from sand fly bites. Vaccines and drugs for preventing infection are not yet available. To decrease their risk of being bitten, travelers should:
- Stay in well-screened or air-conditioned areas as much as possible. Avoid outdoor activities, especially from dusk to dawn, when sand flies are the most active.
- When outside, wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and socks. Tuck your shirt into your pants.
- Apply insect repellent on uncovered skin and under the ends of sleeves and pant legs. Follow the instructions on the label of the repellent. The most effective repellents are those that contain the chemical DEET (N,N-diethylmetatoluamide). The concentration of DEET varies among repellents. Repellents with DEET concentrations of 30-35% are quite effective, and the effect should last about 4 hours. Lower concentrations should be used for children (no more than 10% DEET). Repellents with DEET should be used sparingly on children from 2 to 6 years old and not at all on children less than 2 years old.
- Spray clothing with permethrin-containing insecticides. The insecticide should be reapplied after every five washings.
- Spray living and sleeping areas with an insecticide to kill insects.
- If you are not sleeping in an area that is well screened or air-conditioned, use a bed net and tuck it under your mattress. If possible, use a bed net that has been soaked in or sprayed with permethrin. The permethrin will be effective for several months if the bed net is not washed. Keep in mind that sand flies are much smaller than mosquitoes and therefore can get through smaller holes. Fine-mesh netting (at least 18 holes to the inch; some sources say even finer) is needed for an effective barrier against sand flies. This is particularly important if the bed net has not been treated with permethrin. However, it may be uncomfortable to sleep under such a closely woven bed net when it is hot.
NOTE: Bed nets, repellents containing DEET, and permethrin should be purchased before traveling and can be found in hardware, camping, and military surplus stores.
If I have already had leishmaniasis, could I get it again?
Yes. Some people have had cutaneous leishmaniasis more than once. Therefore, you should follow the preventive measures listed above whenever you are in an area where leishmaniasis is found.
- Berman JD. Human leishmaniasis: clinical, diagnostic, and chemotherapeutic developments in the last 10 years. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:684-703.
- CDC Division of Parasitic Diseases - Leishmaniasis
- Desjeux P. Leishmaniasis: public health aspects and control. Clin Dermatol 1996;14:417-23.
- Herwaldt BL. Leishmaniasis. Lancet 1999;354:1191-9.
- Herwaldt BL, Stokes SL, Juranek DD. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. travelers. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:779-84.
This fact sheet is for information only and is not meant to be used for self-diagnosis or as a substitute for consultation with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the disease described above or think that you might have a parasitic infection, consult a health care provider.