Mid-Continental Canadian forests

Content Cover Image

Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta, Canada Photograph by C. Wallis

The mid-continental Canadian forest ecoregion extends from southern Great Slave Lake in NWT to encompass most of northeastern Alberta, central Saskatchewan and parts of west-central Manitoba.

This ecoregion is classified as having a subhumid mid-boreal ecoclimate. It is marked by short, cool-to-warm summers and long, cold winters. The mean annual temperature ranges from -2°C to 1°Celsius (C); the mean summer temperature ranges from 13°C to 15.5°C; and the mean winter temperature ranges from -17.5°C to -13.5°C. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 300 millimeters (mm) to 625 mm, with the wettest areas being in the southeastern portions of the Mid-Boreal Lowland.

caption WWF This ecoregion consists of both lowland and upland areas which may be grouped into three regions: the Slave River Lowland in northeastern Alberta; the Mid-Boreal Lowland, which comprises the northern section of the Manitoba Plain; and the Mid-Boreal Uplands, which occur as a group of upland areas south of the [Canada|Canadian]] Shield stretching from north-central Alberta to southwestern Manitoba. The lowland areas are underlain by relatively flat, low-relief Palaeozoic carbonates forming undulating sandy plains, or flat-lying Paleozoic limestone bedrock covered by level to ridged glacial till, lacustrine silts and clays, and extensive peat deposits. The upland areas, for the most part, consist of Cretaceous shales, and are covered entirely by kettled to dissected, deep, loamy to clayey-textured glacial till, lacustrine deposits, and inclusions of coarse, fluvoglacial deposits.

Elevations in the uplands range from about 400 to over 800 meters (m) above sea level (asl). Both upland and lowland areas have sporadic, discontinuous permafrost with low [water|ice]] content, but the occurrence of permafrost is much rarer in the upland regions and is found only in peatlands. Wetlands and peatlands are prevalent in this ecoregion, especially in the lowland areas, while small lakes, ponds, and sloughs fill numerous shallow depressions associated with rougher morainal deposits in the upland regions.

Biological Distinctiveness

caption Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), Canada. (Photograph by Gerald and Buff Corsi, California Academy of Sciences & [1])

The ecoregion forms part of the continuous mid-boreal mixed coniferous and deciduous forest extending from northwestern Ontario to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The mixed coniferous and deciduous forest is characterized by medium to tall closed stands of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) with white and black spruce (Picea glauca and P. mariana), and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) occurring in late successional stages. Cold and poorly drained fens and bogs are covered with tamarack (Larix laricina) and black spruce, and may also include ericaceous shrubs (Ericaceae) and mosses. Deciduous stands in the uplands have a diverse understory of shrubs and herbs; while coniferous stands tend to promote feathermoss. [fire|Fire]], drainage, and topography are probably the most significant factors influencing species assemblages.

Characteristic wildlife species includes moose (Alces alces), black bear (Ursus americanus), wolf (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus), beaver (Castor canadensis), muskrat (Ondatra zibethica), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), ducks, geese, American pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), common loon (Gavia immer) and many other bird species. The Interlake Plain to the south is home to moose, coyote (Canis latrans), and eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) as well. Wood Buffalo National Park-within the Slave River Lowland-is populated by the world's largest bison (Bison bison) herd.

The principal breeding range for whooping cranes (Grus americana) in North America is found within this ecoregion. The wetlands found here are of hemispheric significance to waterfowl [migration], including many staging sites. The Cumberland delta-a very large wetland complex-is one such example. This 'inland' delta was formed in post-glacial times on a lake that no longer exists. This ecoregion also has a rich diversity of large ungulate species: bison (Bison bison), elk, woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandua ssp. caribou), moose and deer. In addition, the northern most bat hibernacula in North America are located within this ecoregion.

Conservation Status

Habitat Loss and Degradation

It is estimated that 50 percent of the ecoregion remains as intact habitat. Most of the remaining habitat is considered as altered with only a very small percentage defined as heavily altered. Most habitat disturbance has resulted from large scale forestry operations, oil and gas development in western Saskatchewan, and localized areas of mining activity.

Remaining Blocks of Intact Habitat

  • Wood Buffalo National Park - northern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories
  • Cold Lake/Primrose Lake Air Weapons Range - eastern Alberta and western Saskatchewan
  • Prince Albert National Park - central Saskatchewan
  • Dore-Smoothstone Lakes - central Saskatchewan
  • Northern half of Cumberland Delta - eastern Saskatchewan
  • Riding Mountain National Park - southwestern Manitoba
  • Porcupine Hills - western Manitoba
  • Duck Mountain - western Manitoba

Degree of Fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation is occurring primarily due to extensive forestry activity across the landscape. Large areas of boreal forest are under forest licences. Logging roads and clearcuts are significant in parts of the ecoregion.

Degree of Protection

  • Wood Buffalo National Park - northern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories - 31,364.9 kilometers squared (km2)
  • Prince Albert National Park - central Saskatchewan - 3,874.64 km2
  • Riding Mountain National Park - southwestern Manitoba - 2,950.7 km2
  • Clearwater River Provincial Park - Saskatchewan - 2,240.35 km2
  • Meadow Lake Provincial Park - western Saskatchewan - 1,653.75 km2
  • Narrow Hills Provincial Park - central Saskatchewan - 536.13 km2
  • Duck Mountain Provincial Park (Backcountry zones) - western Manitoba - 480 km2
  • Duck Mountain Provincial Park - eastern Saskatchewan - 261.59 km2
  • Wildcat Hill Provincial Park - eastern Saskatchewan - 217.72 km2
  • Greenwater Lake Provincial Park - eastern Saskatchewan - 207.2 km2

Types and Severity of Threats

Existing and proposed logging throughout the ecoregion are a serious threat. In some areas, the potential for increased oil and gas development is also a concern.

Suite of Priority Activities to Enhance Biodiversity Conservation

Establish protected areas in the following locations:

  • Cold Lake/Primrose Lake Air Weapons Range - Alberta/Saskatchewan
  • Cumberland Delta - Saskatchewan
  • Dore-Smoothstone Lakes Wilderness Area - Saskatchewan
  • Manitoba Lowlands National Park - Manitoba
  • Protection standard upgrades to Saskeram and Tom Lamb Wildlife Management Areas in Manitoba
  • Restore the flood regime to the Peace-Athabasca Rivers in Alberta, which is currently being regulated by the Bennet Dam in B.C.. There are floodplain communities of international significance along these rivers that are becoming degraded as a result of flood control.
  • Protect area where wood bison are being reintroduced in the Chitek Lake watershed in Manitoba.
  • Release an improved conservation and management plan for Riding Mountain National Park - Manitoba.
  • Establish protected areas in Manitoba Provincial Forests.
  • Implement recommended actions in Manitoba with respect to this ecoregion according to the schedule established in the 1996-1998 Action Plan.

Conservation Partners

  • Alberta Wilderness Association
  • Canadian Nature Federation
  • Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Calgary/Banff Chapter
  • Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Edmonton Chapter
  • Ducks Unlimited Canada, Saskatchewan
  • Endangered Spaces Campaign, Manitoba
  • Endangered Spaces Campaign, Saskatchewan
  • Federation of Alberta Naturalists
  • Friends of Prince Albert National Park
  • Manitoba Future Forest Alliance
  • Manitoba Naturalists Society
  • The Nature Conservancy, Alberta
  • The Nature Conservancy, Manitoba
  • Nature Saskatchewan
  • Resource Conservation Manitoba
  • TREE - Time to Respect the Earth's Ecosystems
  • Watchdogs for Wildlife
  • World Wildlife Fund Canada

Disclaimer: This article is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally published by, the World Wildlife Fund. Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth may have edited its content or added new information. The use of information from the World Wildlife Fund should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content.






Fund, W. (2014). Mid-Continental Canadian forests. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbee707896bb431f697dcb


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