Thulium

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69

Tm

168.93
Physical Properties
Color silvery-white
Phase at Room Temp. solid
Density (g/cm3) 9.318
Hardness (Mohs) ---
Melting Point (K) 1818.2
Boiling Point (K) 2000
Heat of Fusion (kJ/mol) 18.4
Heat of Vaporization (kJ/mol) 247
Heat of Atomization (kJ/mol) 232
Thermal Conductivity (J/m sec K) 16.9
Electrical Conductivity (1/mohm cm) 13.5
Source Monazite (phosphate), bastnaesite
Atomic Properties
Electron Configuration [Xe]6s24f13
Number of Isotopes 46 (1 natural)
Electron Affinity (kJ/mol) 50
First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 596.7
Second Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 1163
Third Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 2544
Electronegativity 1.25
Polarizability (Å3) 21.8
Atomic Weight 168.93
Atomic Volume (cm3/mol) 18.1
Ionic Radius2- (pm) ---
Ionic Radius1- (pm) ---
Atomic Radius (pm) 176
Ionic Radius1+ (pm) ---
Ionic Radius2+ (pm) 117
Ionic Radius3+ (pm) 102
Common Oxidation Numbers +3
Other Oxid. Numbers +2
Abundance
In Earth's Crust (mg/kg) 5.2×10-1
In Earth's Ocean (mg/L) 1.7×10-7
In Human Body (%) ---
Regulatory / Health
CAS Number 7440-30-4
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) No limits
OSHA PEL Vacated 1989 No limits
NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) No limits
Sources:
University of Wisconsin General Chemistry
Mineral Information Institute
Jefferson Accelerator Laboratory
EnvironmentalChemistry.com
 
Glossary

Citation

(2006). Thulium. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbef127896bb431f69c310

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