Encyclopedia of Earth


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A winding road leads north from Kathmandu towards Tibet. Source: USDA.


Nepal is a landlocked nation of thirty million people in southern Asia, between China and India.

Nepal contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders with China and India respectively.

Its major environmental issues include:

  • deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives);
  • contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents);
  • wildlife conservation; and,
  • vehicular emissions

Nepal is susceptible to severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons.

In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government.

Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoist extremists broke out in 1996. The ensuing ten-year civil war between insurgents and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and assumption of absolute power by the king.

Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials, and culminated in a November 2006 peace accord and the promulgation of an interim constitution.


Following a nation-wide election in April 2008, the newly formed Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a federal democratic republic and abolished the monarchy at its first meeting the following month. The Constituent Assembly elected the country's first president in July.

Between 2008 and 2011 there have been four different coalition governments, led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist, which received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election, and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist. In November 2011, Maoist Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai, who was elected in August 2011, and the leaders of the main political parties signed an agreement seeking to conclude the peace process and recommit the Constituent Assembly to finish drafting the constitution by a May 2012 deadline.


Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic Coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Area: 147,181 sq km(land: 143,351 sq km; water: 3,830 sq km)

Land Boundaries: (2,926 km (China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km)

A joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River.

Natural Hazards: severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

Terrain:  Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north.  The highest point is Mount Everest (8,850 m) and lowest point (70 m)

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Source: NASA

Ecology and Biodiversity

Source: World Wildlife Fund.

1. Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
2. Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
3. Himalayan subtropical pine forests
4. Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests
5. Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands
6. Western Himalayan broadleaf forests
7. Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
8. Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests
9. Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests

See also:

caption Spectacular view of the majestic Nepal ​Himalayas. Source: Saikat Basu​,​ own work

People and Society

Population: 29,890,686 (July 2012 est.)

Perched on the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains, Nepal is as ethnically diverse as its terrain. The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet, and central Asia.

Among the earliest inhabitants were the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharus in the southern Tarai region. The ancestors of the Brahman and Chetri caste groups came from India, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to central Asia and Tibet, including the Gurungs and Magars in the west, Rais and Limbus in the east, and Sherpas and Bhotias in the north.

The Tarai, a part of the Ganges Basin with 20% of Nepal's land, is the country's main rice-growing region. Much of the population is physically and culturally similar to the Indo-Aryan people of northern India. People of Indo-Aryan and Mongoloid origin live in the hill regions. The mountainous highlands are sparsely populated. The Kathmandu Valley, in the middle hill region, constitutes a small fraction of the nation's area but is the most densely populated, with over 7% of the population.

Religion is important in Nepal; the Kathmandu Valley alone has more than 2,700 religious shrines. According to the 2001 census, Nepal is roughly 81% Hindu. Buddhists account for about 11% of the population. The interim constitution, promulgated on January 15, 2007, declared the country a "secular state." Buddhist and Hindu shrines and festivals are respected and celebrated by many. The government celebrates most Hindu and some Buddhist holidays. Nepal also has small Muslim and Christian minorities. Certain animistic practices of old indigenous religions also survive.

Nepali is the official language, although over 100 regional and indigenous languages are spoken throughout the country. Derived from Sanskrit, Nepali is similar to Hindi and is spoken by about 90% of the population (although often as a second or third language). Many Nepalese in government and business also speak Hindi and English.

Ethnic Groups: Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)

Age Structure:

0-14 years: 34.6% (male 5,177,264/female 4,983,864)
15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,607,338/female 9,344,537)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 597,628/female 681,252) (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate: 1.768% (2012 est.)

Birthrate: 21.85 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death Rate: 6.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net Migration Rate: 2.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth: 66.51 years 

male: 65.26 years
female: 67.82 years (2012 est.)

Total Fertility Rate: 2.41 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Languages: Nepali (official) 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census). Note: many in government and business also speak English (2001 est.)

Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write)48.6% (2001 census)

Urbanization: 19% of total population (2010) growing at an annual rate of change of 4.7% (2010-15 est.)

Human Rights
Since political reform began in 1990, some progress has been achieved in the transition to a more open society with greater respect for human rights; however, substantial problems remain. Poorly trained police sometimes use excessive force in quelling demonstrations. In addition, there have been reports of torture during detention and widespread reports of custodial abuse. In 2000, the government established the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), a government-appointed commission with a mandate to investigate human rights violations. However, the government continues to stall in implementing the commission's recommendations and has not been able to enforce accountability for recent and past abuses. The King's February 2005 dismissal of the government, subsequent imposition of emergency rule and suspension of many civil rights--including freedom of expression, assembly, and privacy--was a setback for human rights in Nepal. During this 3-month period, censors were deployed to major newspapers, and many political leaders were kept under house arrest. The King's government restricted the media from publishing interviews, articles, or news items against the spirit of the royal proclamation of February 1, 2005 or in support of terrorist or destructive activities. The reinstated government, led by Prime Minister Koirala, reversed these decisions in May 2006. The interim constitution promulgated on January 15, 2007 ensured unrestricted freedom of expression and made the NHRC a constitutional body.

Both the Maoists and security personnel have committed numerous human rights violations. The Maoists used tactics such as kidnapping, torture, bombings, intimidation, killings, and conscription of children. Within the Nepalese security forces, violations ranged from disappearances to executions. After the royal takeover on February 1, 2005 and subsequent imposition of the state of emergency, the security forces arrested many political leaders, student leaders, journalists, and human rights activists under the Public Security Act of 1989, although all were released by June 2005 when the King ended the state of emergency.

After the April 2006 cease-fire announced by the government and the Maoists, incidents of human rights violations by the government declined substantially while incidents of human rights violations by the Maoists continued relatively unabated. Even after signing a comprehensive peace agreement with the government in November 2006, Maoists' extortion, abduction, and intimidation remained largely unchecked. Although activities by other political parties have increased significantly in the rural parts of Nepal, political party representatives, police, non-governmental organization (NGO) workers, and journalists reported continuous threats and intimidation by Maoist-affiliated Young Communist League (YCL), Maoist-affiliated All Nepal National Free Students Union (ANNFSU), UML-affiliated Youth Force (YF), UML-affiliated Youth Action Nepal (YAN), or Nepali Congress-affiliated Tarun Dal cadres. During the January-February 2007 uprising in the Tarai, reports of government security forces using excessive force to quell demonstrations were common.

Trafficking in women and child labor remain serious problems, but some improvement has been seen; in addition, the founder of a U.S.-backed anti-trafficking organization, Maiti Nepal, won the 2010 CNN Hero award. According to the State Department's 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report, Nepal is mainly a source country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. While Nepal is primarily a source country for destinations like India and the Middle East, internal trafficking is also a prominent issue. Lack of prosecution and police complicity in trafficking cases remain major problems. Discrimination against women and lower castes is prevalent.

Major daily English-language newspapers include "The Kathmandu Post," "The Himalayan Times," "Republica," and "The Rising Nepal." The last and its vernacular sister publication are owned by a government corporation. There are hundreds of smaller daily and weekly periodicals that are privately owned and of varying journalistic quality. Views expressed since the 1990 move to democracy are varied and vigorous. There are 394 (334 in use) FM radio and 32 (19 in use) television licenses for privately owned and operated stations, following liberalization of licensing regulations. Radio Nepal and Nepal Television are government-owned and operated. There are over 700 cable television operators nationwide, and satellite dishes to receive television broadcasts abound. Internet penetration in Nepal is approximately 4% of the population. Despite its prominence, the Nepali press is still frequently subject to violence and intimidation by political groups.


Early History
Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. The country was frequently called the Gorkha Kingdom, the source of the term "Gurkha" used for Nepali soldiers.

After 1800, the heirs of Prithvi Narayan Shah proved unable to maintain firm political control over Nepal. A period of internal turmoil followed, heightened by Nepal's defeat by the British in a war from 1814 to 1816. Stability was restored after 1846 when the Rana family gained power, entrenched itself through hereditary prime ministers, and reduced the monarch to a figurehead. The Rana regime, a highly centralized autocracy, pursued a policy of isolating Nepal from external influences. This policy helped Nepal maintain its national independence during the colonial era, but also impeded the country's economic development.

In 1950, King Tribhuvan, a direct descendant of Prithvi Narayan Shah, fled his "palace prison" to newly independent India, touching off an armed revolt against the Rana administration. This allowed the return of the Shah family to power and, eventually, the appointment of a non-Rana prime minister. A period of quasi-constitutional rule followed, during which the monarch, assisted by the leaders of fledgling political parties, governed the country. During the 1950s, efforts were made to frame a constitution for Nepal that would establish a representative form of government, based on the British model.

Democracy Develops
In early 1959, King Mahendra, who had succeeded his father Tribhuvan in 1955, issued a new constitution and the first democratic elections for a national assembly were held. The Nepali Congress Party, a moderate socialist group, gained a substantial victory in the election. Its leader, B.P. Koirala, formed a government and served as Prime Minister.

Declaring parliamentary democracy a failure 18 months later, King Mahendra dismissed the Koirala government and promulgated a new constitution on December 16, 1962. The new constitution established a "partyless" system of panchayats (councils), which King Mahendra claimed was a democratic form of government closer to Nepalese traditions. As a hierarchical structure progressing from village assemblies to a Rastriya Panchayat (National Parliament), the Panchayat system enshrined the absolute power of the monarchy and kept the King as head of state with sole authority over all governmental institutions, including the Cabinet (Council of Ministers) and the Parliament.

King Mahendra was succeeded by his 27-year-old son, King Birendra, in 1972. Amid student demonstrations and anti-regime activities in 1979, King Birendra called for a national referendum to decide the nature of Nepal's government--either the continuation of the Panchayat system with democratic reforms or the establishment of a multiparty system. The referendum was held in May 1980, and the Panchayat system won a narrow victory. The King carried out the promised reforms, including selection of the prime minister by the Rastriya Panchayat.

Movement to Restore Democracy
In 1990, the political parties again pressed the King and the government for change. Leftist parties united under a common banner of the United Left Front and joined forces with the Nepali Congress Party to launch strikes and demonstrations in the major cities of Nepal. This "Movement to Restore Democracy" was initially dealt with severely, with more than 50 persons killed by police gunfire and hundreds arrested. In April, the King capitulated. Consequently, he dissolved the Panchayat system, lifted the ban on political parties, and released all political prisoners.

An interim government was sworn in on April 19, 1990, headed by Krishna Prasad Bhattarai as Prime Minister presiding over a cabinet made up of members of the Nepali Congress Party, the communist parties of Nepal, royal appointees, and independents. The new government drafted and promulgated a new constitution in November 1990, which enshrined fundamental human rights and established Nepal as a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. International observers characterized the May 1991 elections as free and fair, in which the Nepali Congress Party won 110 out of 205 seats to form the government.

In mid-1994, the Parliament was dissolved due to dissension within the Nepali Congress Party. The subsequent general election held November 15, 1994, gave no party a majority. The 1994 elections resulted in a Nepali Congress Party defeat and a hung Parliament, with a minority government led by the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist Leninist (CPN-UML); this made Nepal the world's first communist monarchy, with Man Mohan Adhikary as Prime Minister. The next 5 years saw five successive unstable coalition governments and the beginning of a Maoist insurgency.

Following the May 1999 general elections, the Nepali Congress Party once again headed a majority government after winning 113 out of 205 seats. But the pattern of short-lived governments persisted. There were three Nepali Congress Party Prime Ministers after the 1999 elections: K.P. Bhattarai (5/31/99-3/17/00); G. P. Koirala (3/20/00-7/19/01); and Sher Bahadur Deuba (7/23/01-10/04/02).

On June 1, 2001, Crown Prince Dipendra reportedly shot and killed his father King Birendra, his mother Queen Aishwarya, his brother, his sister, his father's younger brother Prince Dhirendra, and several aunts before turning the gun on himself. After his death 2 days later, the late King's surviving brother Gyanendra was proclaimed King.

Maoist Insurgency
In February 1996, the leaders of the Maoist United People's Front began a violent insurgency, waged through killings, torture, bombings, kidnappings, extortion, and intimidation against civilians, police, and public officials in more than 50 of the country's 75 districts. Over 13,000 police, civilians, and insurgents were killed in the conflict. The government and Maoists held peace talks in August, September, and November of 2001, but they were unsuccessful, and the Maoists resumed their violent insurgency. Shortly after the 2001 peace talks failed, King Gyanendra declared a state of emergency, which the Parliament approved by a two-thirds vote. On the recommendation of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, the King dissolved the House on May 22, 2002.

Struggle for Democracy Continues
In a sudden turn of events on October 4, 2002, King Gyanendra removed Prime Minister Deuba and assumed executive power. The entire Council of Ministers was also dissolved, and the November 13, 2002 elections to the dissolved House of Representatives were called off. After a week-long consultation with the leaders of various political parties, on October 11, 2002, the King appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chand as Prime Minister with a five-point directive that included creating an environment of peace and security as well as holding elections to the local bodies and the House of Representatives.

Under Chand's premiership, the government and Maoists declared a cease-fire on January 29, 2003. This marked the second cease-fire with the Maoists; the first, in 2001, had been broken by the Maoists. The 2003 cease-fire included an agreement to undertake initiatives to resolve the Maoist problem through dialogue and bring the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) back into mainstream politics. After the announcement of the 2003 cease-fire, the Chand government held two rounds of peace talks with the Maoists, in April and May. But in its effort to end political instability, it failed to secure the support of the leading political parties. In the face of growing pressure from political parties and their mass movement, Chand resigned from his post on May 30, 2003, after only 7 months in power.

The King appointed Surya Bahadur Thapa as the new Prime Minister on June 4, 2003, amidst opposition from the major political parties. Another round of peace talks was held in mid-August 2003, but on August 27, 2003 the Maoists broke the second cease-fire. Thapa resigned in May 2004 as a result of political pressure. In June 2004, the King reinstated formerly dismissed Sher Bahadur Deuba as Prime Minister.

King's Direct Rule
Citing a steady deterioration of conditions in the country, King Gyanendra dismissed the Cabinet and constituted a Council of Ministers under his own chairmanship on February 1, 2005. He stated that the Council of Ministers (i.e., Cabinet) would try to reactivate multi-party democracy within 3 years. The King subsequently declared a state of emergency and suspended almost all fundamental rights for nearly 3 months. His new government was sworn in on February 2, 2005. The Council of Ministers under the King's chairmanship was reshuffled twice during the King's 15 months of direct rule.

People's Movement
In April 2006, the major political parties, in cooperation with the Maoists, organized massive countrywide demonstrations for the restoration of democracy, forcing the King to relinquish power. On April 24, 2006, King Gyanendra reinstated the 1999 Parliament. Former Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala of the Nepali Congress Party was selected by the Seven-Party Alliance (SPA) of political parties to again lead the government. The Maoists declared a unilateral cease-fire on April 26, and the new Koirala government announced its own unilateral cease-fire and plans for peace talks with the Maoist insurgents on May 3, 2006. The SPA and the Maoists signed a number of agreements, including, in November 2006, a comprehensive peace agreement to end the decade-long insurgency. Both sides also agreed to an arms management process and elections for a Constituent Assembly. On January 15, 2007 a 328-member interim Parliament, including 83 Maoist representatives and other party representatives, was constituted. The first sitting of the Parliament unanimously endorsed an interim constitution, which replaced the constitution of 1990. On April 1, 2007, the ruling eight-party government formed an interim Council of Ministers through political consensus, including five Maoist ministers.

The Constituent Assembly Election
Nepal held its Constituent Assembly (CA) election on April 10, 2008. Primarily mandated to draft a new constitution of Nepal, the CA also serves as a Parliament. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), now known as the United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), emerged as the largest party securing 229 seats, followed by the Nepali Congress Party with 115 seats, and the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist Leninist with 108 seats. The Tarai-based Madhesi People's Rights Forum, securing 54 seats emerged as a new political force in Nepalese politics. Twenty-one smaller parties, including 2 independent candidates, received 95 seats.

The capital and largest city of Nepal, Kathmandu, occupies much of the valley located near the center of the country. Nepal is home to much of the Himalaya mountain range between Tibet (China) to the north and India to the south. Geological and fossil evidence indicates that the Kathmandu Valley was covered by a large lake between approximately 2.8 million and 10,000 years ago. Paleo-Kathmandu Lake is thought to have drained in phases due to the drying of the regional climate; continuing mountain building-tectonic uplift and faulting-in the region; and the formation of an integrated drainage system, as river channels cut through previous rock ridge dams. The green, vegetated slopes that ring the Kathmandu metro area (light gray, image center) include both forest reserves and national parks. The metropolitan area is relatively flat compared to the surrounding mountains. Tribhuvan International Airport, near the eastern margin of the city, is the only international airport in Nepal. Archeological evidence suggests that the human development of Kathmandu, together with the nearby "sister cities" of Lalitpur and Bhaktapur, began almost 2,000 years ago. Today, the three cities form the governmental, cultural, and-as a main access point to the Himalayas for tourism-economic center of the country. Photo courtesy of NASA.



Government Type: Federal democratic republic

A 10-year Maoist insurgency--punctuated by cease-fires in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2006--began in 1996. After King Gyanendra announced the reinstatement of Parliament on April 24, 2006, the Maoists declared a 3-month unilateral cease-fire on April 26, 2006 which the new Koirala government reciprocated on May 3, 2006. The Seven-Party Alliance (SPA) and the Maoists signed five agreements, culminating in the comprehensive peace agreement of November 21, 2006, effectively ending the insurgency. However, Maoist violence and intimidation continued in spite of the agreement.

The main agenda of the SPA and the Maoists was to hold a Constituent Assembly election, with the primary responsibility of drafting and promulgating a new constitution defining the future political system in Nepal. The interim constitution, adopted on January 15, 2007, expressed full commitment to democratic ideals and norms, including competitive multi-party democracy, civil liberties, fundamental human rights, adult enfranchisement, periodic elections, press freedom, an independent judiciary, and the rule of law. The interim constitution also guaranteed the basic rights of Nepali citizens to formulate a constitution for themselves and to participate in the Constituent Assembly in an environment free from fear. The interim constitution transferred all powers of the King as head of state to the prime minister and stripped the King of any ceremonial constitutional role. Under the interim constitution, the fate of the monarchy was to be decided by the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly. The interim Parliament was a unicameral house.

After promulgation of the interim constitution, many socially marginalized ethnic communities, including the Madhesis of the lowland Tarai, began widespread protests against the proposed proportional representation system incorporated in the new constitution. Bandhs (general strikes) and protests sometimes turned violent, with clashes between police and demonstrators leading to dozens killed and injured. The government eventually agreed to increase the number of directly elected representatives from the Tarai and implement quotas ensuring representation of women, Madhesis, janajatis, and other groups facing discrimination. Constitutional amendments regarding representation were adopted in March and June 2007. The government signed further agreements with Madhesi and janajati groups agreeing to inclusion in government bodies and institutions as well as commitments to address other issues in August 2007, but those remained to be fully implemented.

Five Maoist ministers were appointed to the Nepali Congress-led cabinet on April 2007. The ministers submitted their resignations on September 18, 2007 over the issue of declaring Nepal a republic and adoption of fully proportional representation system for the Constituent Assembly election. After compromise agreements on these issues were reached--having the interim Parliament declare Nepal a republic but letting the CA implement the measure, and adoption of a mixed electoral system--the constitution was amended again and the Maoist ministers were reinducted on December 31, 2007.

Twice deferred, Nepal's Constituent Assembly election was finally held on April 10, 2008. None of the parties succeeded in getting a simple majority in the CA. The Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist won 218 out of 575 elected seats, followed by the Nepali Congress with 109 seats, the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist Leninist with 103 seats, and the Tarai-based Madhesi People's Rights Forum with 50 seats. Six constituencies needed to hold by-elections, five due to one candidate having won two directly elected seats and one due to the newly elected President resigning his seat. The appointed seats were distributed across the parties in the following manner: Maoist 9, NC 5, UML 5, MPRF 2, SP 1, CPN-Marxist Leninist 1, People’s Front Nepal 1, Nepal Workers and Peasants Party 1, and TMDP 1.

The final list of members elected under the proportional representation system was released on May 8, 2008. The members of the Constituent Assembly were sworn in on May 27, 2008, and the first session of the CA was convened on May 28, 2008. In this session, the CA voted to declare Nepal a federal democratic republic by abolishing the monarchy. Out of 564 members of the CA who voted, 560 voted in favor and 4 against the motion.

While the CA has the prime responsibility of drafting a new constitution for Nepal, it also functions as a regular Parliament. Through the fourth amendment to the interim constitution of Nepal on May 28, 2008, the CA also established, for the first time, a largely ceremonial President as the constitutional head of state, as well as a Vice President. The Prime Minister continues to be the head of the government.

In August 2008, Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Maoist) was sworn in as Prime Minister. Less than a year into his term, Prime Minister Dahal resigned from the government on May 4, 2009 following a dispute over his bid to dismiss the Chief of the Army Staff. On May 23, members from 22 of the 24 political parties represented in the Constituent Assembly elected veteran Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist Leninist (UML) leader Madhav Kumar Nepal as Prime Minister. Madhav Kumar Nepal was sworn in on May 25, 2009. On June 30, 2010, Prime Minister Nepal announced his resignation "for the sake of consensus" and to end the country's political deadlock following months of Maoist protests. On February 3, 2011, after 16 rounds of voting, Jhala Nath Khanal (UML) was elected Prime Minister; however, 6 months later on August 14, 2011 Khanal resigned from the government, citing the failure to make significant progress on the peace process. On August 29, 2011, Baburam Bhattarai (Maoist) was sworn in as Nepal's 35th Prime Minister, and the fourth Prime Minister since the 2008 CA election.

Capital: Kathmandu - 990,000 (2009)

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Source: Wikimedia Commons


Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

Legal System:  Nepal accepts compulsory International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction; and accepts International criminal court (ICCt) jurisdiction. Nepal's judiciary is legally separated from the executive and legislative branches and, in practice, has increasingly shown the will to be independent of political influence. However, by asserting executive control over the judiciary, the interim constitution called into question this independence. Under the interim constitution, the Prime Minister appoints the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, and the Chief Justice appoints other judges on the recommendation of the Judicial Council. All lower court decisions, including acquittals, are subject to appeal. The Supreme Court is the court of last appeal.

International Environmental Agreements

Nepal is party to international agreements on: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, and Wetlands. It has signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation.


Total Renewable Water Resources: 210.2 cu km (1999)

Freshwater Withdrawal: 10.18 cu km/yr   (3% domestic, 1% industrial, 96% agricultural)

Per Capita Freshwater Withdrawal: 375 cu m/yr (2000)

Access to Improved Sources of Drinking Water: 88% of population

Access to Improved Sanitation Facilities: 31% of population

See: Water profile of Nepal


Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting for about one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.

Agricultural products: pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat

Irrigated Land: 11,680 sq km (2008)


Natural Resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land Use:

arable land: 16.07%
permanent crops: 0.85%
other: 83.08% (2005)


Nepal ranks among the world's poorest countries. In 2008, it was estimated that 25% of the population was below the poverty line. An isolated, agrarian society until the mid-20th century, Nepal entered the modern era in 1951 without schools, hospitals, roads, telecommunications, electric power, industry, or a civil service. The country has made progress toward sustainable economic growth since the 1950s and is committed to a program of economic liberalization.

Agriculture remains Nepal's principal economic activity, employing over 73% of the population and providing about one-third% of GDP. Only about 25% of the total area is cultivable; another 33% is forested; most of the rest is mountainous. Rice and wheat are the main food crops. The lowland Tarai region produces an agricultural surplus, part of which supplies the food-deficient hill areas. Because of Nepal's dependence on agriculture, the magnitude of the annual monsoon rain strongly influences economic growth.

Nepal's exports decreased from $907 million in 2008 to $849 in 2009. Exports, constrained by political turmoil and a poor investment climate, were also impacted by the worldwide financial crisis. Imports increased from an estimated $4.31 billion to $5.26 billion in 2009, resulting in a growing trade deficit.

Nepal posted a balance of payments surplus of $40.4 million in 2010-2011, recovering from a 2009-2010 deficit of $48.5 million. The country receives substantial amounts of external assistance from India, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and the European Union (EU). Several multilateral organizations--including the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the UN Development Program--also provide significant assistance. On April 23, 2004, Nepal became the 147th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Nepal has eight of the world's ten highest mountain peaks, including Mt. Everest at 8,848 m (29,000 ft.). The country is a tourist destination for hikers and mountain climbers, as well as devout Buddhists who visit Lumbini, the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, the Supreme Buddha. Since 2007, tourism has grown, helped by greater peace and stability following the official end of the 10-year insurgency and rising incomes of Indian and Chinese travelers. Figures from the Department of Immigration showed a 24.6% increase in air arrivals between January and August 2011 over the same period in 2010, with arrivals of Indian travelers growing by 46.3% and Chinese travelers by 60%. In 2011, Nepal celebrated its "Year of Tourism."

Swift rivers flowing south through the Himalayas have massive hydroelectric potential to service domestic power needs and growing demand from India. Only about 1%-2% of Nepal's hydroelectric potential is currently tapped. Several hydroelectric projects, at Kulekhani and Marsyangdi, were completed in the early to late 1980s. In the early 1990s, one large public-sector project, the Kali Gandaki A (144 megawatts--MW), and a number of private projects were planned; some have been completed. Kali Gandaki A started commercial operation in August 2002. The most significant privately financed hydroelectric projects in operation are the Khimti Khola (60 MW) and Bhote Koshi (36 MW) projects.

Population pressure on natural resources is increasing. Overpopulation is already straining the "carrying capacity" of the middle hill areas, particularly the Kathmandu Valley, resulting in the depletion of forest cover for crops, fuel and fodder, and contributing to erosion and flooding. Additionally, water supplies within the Kathmandu Valley are not considered safe for consumption, and disease outbreaks are not uncommon. Although steep mountain terrain makes exploitation difficult, mineral surveys have found small deposits of limestone, magnesite, zinc, copper, iron, mica, lead, and cobalt.

Progress has been achieved in education, health, and infrastructure. A countrywide primary education system is under development, and Tribhuvan University has several campuses. Although eradication efforts continue, malaria has been controlled in the fertile but previously uninhabitable Tarai region in the south. Kathmandu is linked to India and nearby hill regions by an expanding highway network.Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with almost one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line.

Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, civil strife and labor unrest, and its susceptibility to natural disaster.

GDP: (Purchasing Power Parity): $37.74 billion (2011 est.)

GDP: (Official Exchange Rate): $18.3 billion (2011 est.)

GDP- per capita (PPP): $1,300 (2011 est.)

GDP- composition by sector:

agriculture: 34.9%
industry: 15%
services: 50.1% (2010 est.)

Industries: tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production

Currency: Nepalese rupees (NPR)




Administration, N., Agency, C., Fund, W., & Department, U. (2014). Nepal. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbf27d7896bb431f6a99f7


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