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Apiaceae or Umbelliferae: The carrot and parsley family

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Umbelliferae: Apium leaves and tiny inflorescences, Daucus habit, Foeniculum inflorescences, Eryngium inflorescences, Petroselinum root. (By RoRo (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons)

The Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family is comprised of over 280 genera and nearly 3,000 species, distributed over the sub-tropical, sub-temperate and temperate regions. Plants of the family are predominantly herbaceous and typcially are used commercially as aromatic medicinal plants and spices around the globe.

Physical Description

Leaves are alternating and either pinnately or palmately compound and exstipulate. Flowers are small, predominantly bisexual (hermaphrodite) and regular, with some variations observed across different genera. Calyx is characterized by 5 sepals, corolla consists of 5 inflexed petals (often absent in some genera). The androecium consists of 5 stamens and the gynoecium is comprised of a compound pistil produced due to fusion of the two carpels and characterized by the presence of a pair of styles staged on a broad platform (stylopodium). The ovary is of inferior type with distinct chambers (loculi). Apiaceae family is characterized by schizocarpic fruit that splits into two halves, each enclosing a single seed. The conspicuous inflorescence type of this family is called umbellate inflorescence.

Seeds are small, hard, and ridged, and come in a wide diversity of shapes and sizes. The pollens are mostly tricolporate with conspicuous internal thickenings circulating a large pore (endopore) in the equatorial region and furrows small and straight, either striate/psilate/regulate.

Different members of the family are presented in table 1.

caption (Source: Saikat Basu, own work)
Fig 1. Characteristic umbellate inflorescence of the Apiaceae family (1-3). 4. Coriander (Corinadrum sativum L.);
and 5. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.); 6. Schizocarpic fruits of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) 
 

Table 1. Plants representing Apiaceae family

 

Ref.

Species & accepted Taxa

Genera

Family

USDA, 2014

Aciphylla ferox W.R.B. Oliv.

Aciphylla J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Apiaceae

USDA, 2014

Aegopodium podagraria L.

Aegopodium L.

USDA, 2014

Aethusa cynapium L.

Aethusa L.

USDA, 2014

Aletes acaulis (Torr.) J.M. Coult. & Rose

Aletes J.M. Coult. & Rose

USDA, 2014

Aletes anisatus (A. Gray) W.L. Theobald & C.C. Tseng

USDA, 2014

Aletes filifolius Mathias, Constance & W.L. Theobald

USDA, 2014

Aletes humilis J.M. Coult. & Rose

USDA, 2014

Aletes macdougalii J.M. Coult. & Rose

USDA, 2014

Aletes macdougalii J.M. Coult. & Rose ssp. breviradiatus W.L. Theobald & C.C. Tseng

USDA, 2014

Aletes macdougalii J.M. Coult. & Rose ssp. macdougalii

USDA, 2014

Aletes sessiliflorus W.L. Theobald & C.C. Tseng

USDA, 2014

Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam.

Ammi L.

USDA, 2014

Ammoselinum giganteum J.M. Coult. & Rose

Ammoselinum Torr. & A. Gray

USDA, 2014

Anethum graveolens L.

Anethum L.

USDA, 2014

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica L.

USDA, 2014

Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm.

Anthriscus Pers.

USDA, 2014

Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt.

Apiastrum Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray

USDA, 2014

Apium graveolens L.

Apium L.

USDA, 2014

Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag.

USDA, 2014

Arracacia xanthorrhiza E.N. Bancroft

Arracacia E.N. Bancroft

USDA, 2014

Astrantia major L.

Astrantia L.

USDA, 2014

Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville

Berula Besser ex W.D.J. Koch

USDA, 2014

Bifora testiculata (L.) Spreng.

Bifora Hoffm.

USDA, 2014

Bowlesia incana Ruiz & Pav.

Bowlesia Ruiz & Pav.

USDA, 2014

Bunium bulbocastanum L.

Bunium L.

USDA, 2014

Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem.

Bupleurum L.

USDA, 2014

Carum carvi L.

Carum L.

USDA, 2014

Caucalis platycarpos L.

Caucalis L.

USDA, 2014

Centella erecta (L. f.) Fernald

Centella L.

USDA, 2014

Chaerophyllum bulbosum L.

Chaerophyllum L.

USDA, 2014

Cicuta maculata L.

Cicuta L.

USDA, 2014

Cnidium cnidiifolium (Turcz.) Schischkin

Cnidium Cusson ex Juss.

USDA, 2014

Conioselinum gmelinii (Cham. & Schltdl.) Steud.

Conioselinum Hoffm.

USDA, 2014

Conium maculatum L.

Conium L.

USDA, 2014

Coriandrum sativum L.

Coriandrum L.

USDA, 2014

Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC.

Cryptotaenia DC.

USDA, 2014

Cuminum cyminum L.

Cuminum L.

USDA, 2014

Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson

Cyclospermum Lag.

USDA, 2014

Cymopterus acaulis (Pursh) Raf.

Cymopterus Raf.

USDA, 2014

Cymopterus basalticus M.E. Jones

USDA, 2014

Cynosciadium digitatum DC.

Cynosciadium DC.

USDA, 2014

Daucosma laciniata Engelm. & A. Gray

Daucosma Engelm. & A. Gray ex A. Gray

USDA, 2014

Daucus carota L.

Daucus L.

USDA, 2014

Dorema ammoniacum D. Don

Dorema D. Don

USDA, 2014

Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt.

Erigenia Nutt.

USDA, 2014

Eryngium alismifolium Greene

Eryngium L.

USDA, 2014

Eryngium aquaticum L.

USDA, 2014

Eurytaenia hinckleyi Mathias & Constance

Eurytaenia Torr. & A. Gray

USDA, 2014

Falcaria vulgaris Bernh.

Falcaria Fabr.

USDA, 2014

Ferula gummosa Boiss.

Ferula L.

USDA, 2014

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Foeniculum Mill.

Apiaceae

USDA, 2014

Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq.

Glehnia F. Schmidt ex Miq.

USDA, 2014

Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose

Harbouria J.M. Coult. & Rose

USDA, 2014

Heracleum maximum W. Bartram

Heracleum L.

USDA, 2014

Hydrocotyle americana L.

Hydrocotyle L.

USDA, 2014

Hydrocotyle bonariensis Comm. ex Lam.

USDA, 2014

Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch

Levisticum Hill

USDA, 2014

Ligusticum apiifolium (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray

Ligusticum L.

USDA, 2014

Lilaeopsis carolinensis J.M. Coult. & Rose

Lilaeopsis Greene

USDA, 2014

Limnosciadium pinnatum (DC.) Mathias & Constance

Limnosciadium Mathias & Constance

USDA, 2014

Lomatium ambiguum (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. & Rose

Lomatium Raf.

USDA, 2014

Lomatium attenuatum Evert

USDA, 2014

Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf.

Musineon Raf.

USDA, 2014

Myrrhis odorata (L.) Scop.

Myrrhis Mill.

USDA, 2014

Neoparrya lithophila Mathias

Neoparrya Mathias

USDA, 2014

Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir.

Oenanthe L.

USDA, 2014

Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.

USDA, 2014

Oreonana purpurascens Shevock & Constance

Oreonana Jeps.

USDA, 2014

Oreoxis alpina (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose

Oreoxis Raf.

USDA, 2014

Orogenia fusiformis S. Watson

Orogenia S. Watson

USDA, 2014

Osmorhiza berteroi DC.

Osmorhiza Raf.

USDA, 2014

Oxypolis canbyi (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Fernald

Oxypolis Raf.

USDA, 2014

Pastinaca sativa L.

Pastinaca L.

USDA, 2014

Perideridia americana (Nutt. ex DC.) Rchb.

Perideridia Rchb.

USDA, 2014

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill

Petroselinum J. Hill

USDA, 2014

Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J. Koch

Peucedanum L.

USDA, 2014

Phlojodicarpus villosus (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Turcz. ex Ledeb

Phlojodicarpus Turcz. ex Ledeb.

USDA, 2014

Pimpinella major (L.) Huds.

Pimpinella L.

USDA, 2014

Podistera macounii (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias & Constance

Podistera S. Watson

USDA, 2014

Polytaenia nuttallii DC.

Polytaenia DC.

USDA, 2014

Pseudocymopterus longiradiatus Mathias, Constance & W.L. Theobald

Pseudocymopterus J.M. Coult. & Rose

USDA, 2014

Pteryxia hendersonii (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias & Constance

Pteryxia (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) Nutt. ex J.M. Coult. & Rose

USDA, 2014

Ptilimnium ahlesii Weakley & G.L. Nesom

Ptilimnium Raf.

USDA, 2014

Sanicula arguta Greene ex J.M. Coult. & Rose

Sanicula L.

USDA, 2014

Scandix pecten-veneris L.

Scandix L.

USDA, 2014

Selinum carvifolia (L.) L.

Selinum L.

USDA, 2014

Seseli libanotis (L.) W.D.J. Koch

Seseli L.

USDA, 2014

Shoshonea pulvinata Evert & Constance

Shoshonea Evert & Constance

USDA, 2014

Sium carsonii Durand ex A. Gray

Sium L.

USDA, 2014

Smyrnium olusatrum L.,

Smyrnium L.

USDA, 2014

Spermolepis echinata (Nutt. ex DC.) A. Heller

Spermolepis Raf.

USDA, 2014

Sphenosciadium capitellatum A. Gray

Sphenosciadium A. Gray

USDA, 2014

Synelcosciadium carmeli (Labill.) Boiss.

Synelcosciadium Boiss.

USDA, 2014

Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude

Taenidia (Torr. & A. Gray) Drude

USDA, 2014

Tauschia glauca (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias & Constance

Tauschia Schltdl.

USDA, 2014

Thaspium pinnatifidum (Buckley) A. Gray

Thaspium Nutt.

USDA, 2014

Tilingia ajanensis Regel & Tiling

Tilingia Regel & Tiling

USDA, 2014

Tordylium apulum L.

Tordylium L.

USDA, 2014

Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.

Torilis Adans.

USDA, 2014

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill

Trachyspermum Link

USDA, 2014

Trepocarpus aethusae Nutt. ex DC.

Trepocarpus Nutt. ex DC.

USDA, 2014

Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm.

Turgenia Hoffm.

USDA, 2014

Yabea microcarpa (Hook. & Arn.) Koso-Pol.

Yabea Koso-Pol.

USDA, 2014

Zizia aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch

Zizia W.D.J. Koch

 

References and Further Reading

  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436
  • The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (1998) An Ordinal Classification for the Families of Flowering Plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Downie, S.R., Katz-Downie, D.S. & Watson, M.F. (2000) A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA rpl16 and rpoC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apioidae. Am. Journ. Bot. 87: 273–292.
  • Faurholdt, N. & Schou J.C. (2004) Nordiske skærmplanter. København.
  • French, D.H. (1971) Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae. In V.H. Heywood (ed.), The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae: 385–412. London. [Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64, suppl. 1]
  • Froebe, H.A. (1964) Die Blütenstände der Saniculoiden (Umbelliferae). Eine vergleichend-morphologische und entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 40: 325–388.
  • Hansen, K. (ed.) (1981) Dansk feltflora. København.
  • Hegnauer, R. (1971) Chemical patterns and relationships of Umbelliferae. In V.H. Heywood (ed.) The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae: 267–277. London. [Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64, suppl 1]
  • Heywood, V. H. (1971) Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae. in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 31–41. Academic Press, London.
  • Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, & M. J. Donoghue (2007) Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 3rd ed.
  • Judd, W. S. et al. (1999) Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
  • Judd, W.S., Sanders, R.W. & Donoghue, M.J. (1994) Angiosperm family pairs: preliminary phylogenetic analyses. Harvard papers in Botany, no. 5, January 1994.
  • Karlsson, T. (1998) Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91: 241–560.
  • Pimenov, M.G. & Leonov, M.V. (1993) The genera of Umbelliferae, a nomenclator. Moscow and London.
  • Plunkett, G. M. and S. R. Downie (1999) Major lineages within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: a comparison of chloroplast restriction site and DNA sequence data. American Journal of Botany, 86, 1014–1026.
  • Plunkett, G.M., Chandler, G.T. & Kowry II, P.P., Pinney, S.M. & Sprenkle, T.S (2004) Recent advances in understanding Apiales and a revised classification. South African Journal of Botany 70: 371–381.
  • Plunkett, G. M., D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis (1996) Higher Level Relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of rbcL Sequences. Botanical Society of America, 83 (4), 499–515.
  • Punt, W. (1984) Umbelliferae. pp. 155-363. in Punt, W, and Clarke, G.C.S. The Northwest European Pollen Flora 37. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • USDA (2014) Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Solanaceae. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at: https://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=profile&symbol=Solanaceae&display=63 [Accessed on 28th June, 2014]
Glossary

Citation

Basu, S., Zandi, P., Cetzal-Ix, W., & Sengupta, R. (2014). Apiaceae or Umbelliferae: The carrot and parsley family. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/53c4adff0cf2cebe68b40577

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