Botany

Solanaceae: The nightshade family

Content Cover Image

Browallia viscosa, Cambridge University Botanic Garden (By Magnus Manske (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons)

The Solanaceae family represents around 85 genera of floweing plants consisting of over 2800 species globally (D’Arcy, 1986; Albuquerque et al., 2006). Its cosmopolitan distribution is best represented in tropical and temperate regions, with Australia and Latin America as major dispersal centers (Barroso et al., 1991). The greatest species diversity is reported in tropical South America and is considered to be the origin of Solanaceae (Hunziker, 1979).

Physical Description

Plant members are typically trees, shrubs and herbs, though there are some climbers, vines and epiphytes (Barroso et al. 1991). Leaves are usually simple; sometimes they are greatly lobed, petiolate/sub-sessile or phyllotaxy-alternate/alternate to opposed. Leaves are herbaceous, leathery or modified spines. Inflorescences are mostly cymose and axillary, but may be reduced to a single flower. Flowers are bisexual, regular/irregular, medium sized, single/grouped, with cymose/axillary inflorescences and are usually pentamerous (5-membered). Most species are bisexual (hermaphrodites), some are monoecious/dioecious, perianth present, and calyx united. The corolla has five sepals and petals whose shape varies from long to tubular/rotate/campanulate. Androecium are comprised of 2, 4, 5, or 6 free stamens, alternating with the petals, showing flat/filliform filament. Gynoecium bicarpelary, ovary superior, 2-chambered containing 1-50 ovules per chamber, anatropous/hemianatropous, placentation axillary. Fruits berries/capsules/drupe. Seeds are predominantly small, round and flat (Williams 1983; Rzedowski and Rzedowski G, 1985; Tamboia et al., 1986; Barrosa et al. 1991).

Importance of Family

The family is well-known for production of wide varieties of secondary metabolites for example, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes (Evans, 1986). Recently, the ecological importance of Solanum alkaloids in limiting frugivory (Cipollini and Levey, 1997a; Albuquerque et al., 2006) and as antifungal agents (Cipollini and Levey, 1997b) have been reported. While several members are pharmacologically important, like Atropa, Datura (Bohs and Olmstead, 1997), others serve as major food crops like peppers (Fig 1), eggplant (Fig 2) tomato (Fig 3) and tuberous potatoes (Fig 4) (Basu and De, 2003). Still others are used as ornamental plants (petunias, Nicotiana, etc.)

 

caption Figure 1: Several species of Capsicum (commonly known as pepper, chili, sweet pepper or bell pepper, hot chili pepper or chili pepper, jalapeno pepper etc) are known all over the globe, but two most commercially successful species that are cultivated across the planet are Capsicum annuum L. and Capsium frutescens L. 1-15. Different cultivars and/or germplasms /genotypes of different species of Capsicum showing the wide diversity of shapes, sizes, color, aroma, flavor and degree of hotness. 8. Flower of Capsium frutescens L. [Photo credits: 1-9: Ratnabali Sengupta; 10-15: Saikat Basu]

caption Figure 2: Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) 1. Plant; 2. Flower; 3. Flower bud; 4-13. Different cultivars of eggplant grown across the gloabe for commercial production. [Photo credits: 1-3; 5-13: Ratnabali Sengupta; 4; Saikat Basu]

caption Figure 3. 1. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants growing under greenhouse conditions; 2. Potato root system showing growth of tubers; Tubers with 3. White-fleshed tuber; 4. Yellow-fleshed tuber; 5-6. Deep purple colored flesh; 7. Pink colored flesh; 8. Pale red colored flesh; 9. Deep purple colored flesh [Photo credits: 1: Saikat Basu; 2-3: Ratnabali Sengupta; 4-9: Xianping Li and Yanshan Li]

caption Figure 4. 1-6. Flowers and fruits of tomato (Solanum lycopersion L.); 7. Solanum nigrum L.; 8. Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.; and 9. Solanum torvum Sw. [Photo credits: 1, 2, 4 & 6: Saikat Basu; 3, 5, 7-9: Ratnabali Sengupta]

caption Figure 5. Ornamental Solanaceae-Petunias under different shades and color [Photo credits: Ratnabali Sengupta] Source: Saikat Basu, own work

A list of members representing the family is presented in Table 1.

Table. 1. Solanaceae members

Ref.

Species & accepted Taxa

Genera

Family

USDA,2014

Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl

Acnistus Schott

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Atropa bella-donna L.

Atropa L.

USDA,2014

Bouchetia erecta DC.

Bouchetia Dunal

USDA,2014

Browallia americana L.

 

Browallia L.

USDA,2014

Browallia eludens R.K. Van Devender & P.D. Jenkins

USDA,2014

Brugmansia ×candida Pers. (pro sp.)

Brugmansia Pers.

USDA,2014

Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don

USDA,2014

Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & C. Presl

USDA,2014

Brugmansia versicolor Lagerh.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia americana L.

Brunfelsia L.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia chiricaspi Plowman

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia densifolia Krug & Urb.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia lactea Krug & Urb.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia nitida Benth.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. & Schltdl.) Benth.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. & Schltdl.) Benth. var. calycina (Benth.) J.A. Schmidt

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia portoricensis Krug & Urb.

USDA,2014

Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D. Don

USDA,2014

Calibrachoa parviflora (Juss.) D'Arcy

Calibrachoa Llave & Lex.

USDA,2014

Capsicum annuum L.

Capsicum L.

USDA,2014

Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum

USDA,2014

Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill

USDA,2014

Capsicum baccatum L.

USDA,2014

Capsicum baccatum L. var. baccatum

USDA,2014

Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshb.

USDA,2014

Capsicum chinense Jacq. [excluded]

USDA,2014

Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav.

USDA,2014

Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill

USDA,2014

Cestrum alternifolium (Jacq.) O.E. Schulz

Cestrum L.

USDA,2014

Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.

USDA,2014

Cestrum daphnoides Griseb. [excluded]

USDA,2014

Cestrum diurnum L.

USDA,2014

Cestrum elegans (Brongn. ex Neumann) Schltdl.

USDA,2014

Cestrum fasciculatum (Schltdl.) Miers

USDA,2014

Cestrum laurifolium L'Hér.

USDA,2014

Cestrum nocturnum L.

USDA,2014

Cestrum parqui L'Hér.

USDA,2014

Cestrum salicifolium Jacq.

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha coniodes (Moric. ex Dunal) Britton

Chamaesaracha (A. Gray) Benth.

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha coronopus (Dunal) A. Gray

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha crenata Rydb.

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha edwardsiana Averett

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha pallida Averett

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha sordida (Dunal) A. Gray

USDA,2014

Chamaesaracha villosa Rydb.

USDA,2014

Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn

Cyphomandra Mart. ex Sendtn.

USDA,2014

Datura ceratocaula Ortega

Datura L.

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Datura discolor Bernh.

USDA,2014

Datura inermis Jacq. [excluded]

USDA,2014

Datura inoxia Mill.

USDA,2014

Datura kymatocarpa Barclay

USDA,2014

Datura leichhardtii F. Muell. ex Benth.

USDA,2014

Datura pruinosa Greenman

USDA,2014

Datura quercifolia Kunth

USDA,2014

Datura reburra Barclay

USDA,2014

Datura stramonium L.

USDA,2014

Datura wrightii Regel

USDA,2014

D. leichhardtii F. Muell

Duboisia R. Br.

USDA,2014

D. hopwoodii F. Muell.

USDA,2014

D. myoporoides R. Br.

USDA,2014

Fabiana imbricata Ruiz & Pav.

Fabiana Ruiz & Pav.

USDA,2014

Goetzea elegans Wydler

Goetzea Wydler

USDA,2014

Hunzikeria texana (Torr.) D'Arcy

Hunzikeria D'Arcy

USDA,2014

Hyoscyamus albus L.

Hyoscyamus L.

USDA,2014

Hyoscyamus muticus L.

USDA,2014

Hyoscyamus niger L.

USDA,2014

Iochroma cyaneum (Lindl.) M.L. Green

Iochroma Benth., nom. cons.

USDA,2014

Jaborosa integrifolia Lam.

Jaborosa Juss.

USDA,2014

Jaltomata antillana (Krug & Urb.) D'Arcy

Jaltomata Schltdl.

USDA,2014

Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J.L. Gentry

USDA,2014

Leucophysalis grandiflora (Hook.) Rydb.

Leucophysalis Rydb.

USDA,2014

Leucophysalis nana (A. Gray) Averett

USDA,2014

Lycianthes asarifolia (Kunth & Bouché) Bitter

Lycianthes (Dunal) Hassler

USDA,2014

Lycianthes rantonnetii (Carrière) Bitter

USDA,2014

Lycianthes virgata (Lam.) Bitter

USDA,2014

Lycium andersonii A. Gray

Lycium L.

USDA,2014

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. andersonii

USDA,2014

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. deserticola (C.L. Hitchc.) C.L. Hitchc. ex Munz

USDA,2014

Lycium andersonii A. Gray var. wrightii A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium barbarum L.

USDA,2014

Lycium berlandieri Dunal

USDA,2014

Lycium berlandieri Dunal var. berlandieri

USDA,2014

Lycium berlandieri Dunal var. longistylum C.L. Hitchc.

USDA,2014

Lycium berlandieri Dunal var. parviflorum (A. Gray) Terracc.

USDA,2014

Lycium brevipes Benth.

USDA,2014

Lycium californicum Nutt. ex A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium californicum Nutt. ex A. Gray var. arizonicum A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium californicum Nutt. ex A. Gray var. californicum

USDA,2014

Lycium carolinianum Walter

USDA,2014

Lycium carolinianum Walter var. carolinianum

USDA,2014

Lycium carolinianum Walter var. quadrifidum (Dunal) C.L. Hitchc.

USDA,2014

Lycium chinense Mill.

USDA,2014

Lycium cooperi A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium depressum Stocks

USDA,2014

Lycium exsertum A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium ferocissimum Miers

USDA,2014

Lycium fremontii A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium hassei Greene

USDA,2014

Lycium macrodon A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium pallidum Miers

USDA,2014

Lycium pallidum Miers var. oligospermum C.L. Hitchc.

USDA,2014

Lycium pallidum Miers var. pallidum

Lycium L.

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Lycium parishii A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium puberulum A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium puberulum A. Gray var. berberioides (Correll) Chiang

USDA,2014

Lycium puberulum A. Gray var. puberulum

USDA,2014

Lycium sandwicense A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium shockleyi A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium texanum Correll

USDA,2014

Lycium torreyi A. Gray

USDA,2014

Lycium tweedianum Griseb.

USDA,2014

Lycium tweedianum Griseb. var. chrysocarpum (Urb. & Ekman) C.L. Hitchc.

USDA,2014

Lycium tweedianum Griseb. var. tweedianum Griseb. [excluded]

USDA,2014

Mandragora officinarum L.

Mandragora L.

USDA,2014

Margaranthus solanaceus Schltdl.

Margaranthus Schltdl.

USDA,2014

Nectouxia formosa Kunth

Nectouxia Kunth

USDA,2014

Nicandra physalodes (L.) Scop.

Nicandra Adans.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook

Nicotiana L.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. var. acuminata (Graham) Hook. [excluded]

USDA,2014

Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. var. multiflora (Phil.) Reiche

USDA,2014

Nicotiana alata Link & Otto

USDA,2014

Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex S. Watson

USDA,2014

Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray

USDA,2014

Nicotiana excelsior (J.M. Black) J.M. Black

USDA,2014

Nicotiana forgetiana Hort. ex Hemsl.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana glauca Graham

USDA,2014

Nicotiana glutinosa L.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana glutinosa L.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana longiflora Cav.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti

USDA,2014

Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti var. obtusifolia

USDA,2014

Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti var. palmeri (A. Gray) Kartesz

USDA,2014

Nicotiana paniculata L.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh

USDA,2014

Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh var. bigelovii (Torr.) DeWolf

USDA,2014

Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh var. quadrivalvis

USDA,2014

Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh var. wallacei (A. Gray) Mansf.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana repanda Willd. ex Lehm.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana rustica L.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana ×sanderae hort. ex W. Watson (pro sp.)

USDA,2014

Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes

USDA,2014

Nicotiana tabacum L.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana tomentosa Ruiz & Pav.

USDA,2014

Nicotiana velutina H.-M. Wheeler

USDA,2014

Nierembergia hippomanica Miers

Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav.

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Nierembergia hippomanica Miers var. caerulea (Miers) Millán

USDA,2014

Nierembergia scoparia Sendtn.

USDA,2014

Nothocestrum breviflorum A. Gray

Nothocestrum A. Gray

USDA,2014

Nothocestrum latifolium A. Gray

USDA,2014

Nothocestrum longifolium A. Gray

USDA,2014

Nothocestrum peltatum Skottsb.

USDA,2014

Oryctes nevadensis S. Watson

Oryctes S. Watson

USDA,2014

Petunia ×atkinsiana D. Don ex Loudon

Petunia Juss.

USDA,2014

Petunia axillaris (Lam.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

USDA,2014

Petunia integrifolia (Hook.) Schinz & Thell.

USDA,2014

Physalis acutifolia (Miers) Sandw.

Physalis L.

USDA,2014

Physalis alkekengi L.

USDA,2014

Physalis angulata L.

USDA,2014

Physalis angustifolia Nutt.

USDA,2014

Physalis arenicola Kearney

USDA,2014

Physalis carpenteri Riddell ex Rydb.

USDA,2014

Physalis caudella Standl.

USDA,2014

Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) Hitchc.

USDA,2014

Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) Hitchc. var. cinerascens

USDA,2014

Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) Hitchc. var. spathulifolia (Torr.) J.R. Sullivan

USDA,2014

Physalis cordata Mill.

USDA,2014

Physalis crassifolia Benth.

USDA,2014

Physalis crassifolia Benth. var. crassifolia

USDA,2014

Physalis crassifolia Benth. var. versicolor (Rydb.) Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis grisea (Waterf.) M. Martínez

USDA,2014

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray

USDA,2014

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. comata (Rydb.) Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. fendleri (A. Gray) Cronquist

USDA,2014

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. hederifolia

USDA,2014

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. palmeri (A. Gray) Cronquist

USDA,2014

Physalis heterophylla Nees

USDA,2014

Physalis heterophylla Nees var. heterophylla

USDA,2014

Physalis heterophylla Nees var. rowellii Stanford

USDA,2014

Physalis hispida (Waterf.) Cronquist

USDA,2014

Physalis lanceolata Michx.

USDA,2014

Physalis latiphysa Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis longifolia Nutt.

USDA,2014

Physalis longifolia Nutt. var. longifolia

USDA,2014

Physalis longifolia Nutt. var. subglabrata (Mack. & Bush) Cronquist

USDA,2014

Physalis minima L.

USDA,2014

Physalis missouriensis Mack. & Bush

USDA,2014

Physalis mollis Nutt.

USDA,2014

Physalis mollis Nutt. var. mollis

USDA,2014

Physalis mollis Nutt. var. variovestita (Waterf.) J.R. Sullivan

USDA,2014

Physalis peruviana L.

USDA,2014

Physalis philadelphica Lam.

USDA,2014

Physalis philadelphica Lam. var. immaculata Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis pubescens L.

USDA,2014

Physalis pubescens L. var. integrifolia (Dunal) Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis pubescens L. var. pubescens

Physalis L.

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Physalis pumila Nutt.

USDA,2014

Physalis subulata Rydb.

USDA,2014

Physalis subulata Rydb. var. neomexicana (Rydb.) Waterf. ex Kartesz & Gandhi

USDA,2014

Physalis subulata Rydb. var. subulata Rydb. [excluded]

USDA,2014

Physalis turbinata Medik.

USDA,2014

Physalis virginiana Mill.

USDA,2014

Physalis virginiana Mill. var. campaniforma Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis virginiana Mill. var. polyphylla (Greene) Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis virginiana Mill. var. texana (Rydb.) Waterf.

USDA,2014

Physalis virginiana Mill. var. virginiana

USDA,2014

Physalis viscosa L.

USDA,2014

Physalis walteri Nutt.

USDA,2014

Quincula lobata (Torr.) Raf.

Quincula Raf.

USDA,2014

Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Thell.

Salpichroa Miers

USDA,2014

Salpiglossis sinuata Ruiz & Pav.

Salpiglossis K. Koch

USDA,2014

Schizanthus pinnatus Ruiz & Pav.

Schizanthus Ruiz & Pav.

USDA,2014

Scopolia carniolica Jacq.

Scopolia Jacq.

USDA,2014

Solandra grandiflora Sw

Solandra Sw.

USDA,2014

Solandra longiflora Tussac [excluded]

USDA,2014

Solandra nitida Zuccagni

USDA,2014

Solanum aculeastrum Dunal

Solanum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum adscendens Sendtn.

USDA,2014

Solanum aethiopicum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum americanum Mill.

USDA,2014

Solanum anguivi Lam.

USDA,2014

Solanum aviculare G. Forst.

USDA,2014

Solanum bahamense L.

USDA,2014

Solanum bahamense L. var. bahamense

USDA,2014

Solanum bahamense L. var. luxurians D'Arcy

USDA,2014

Solanum bahamense L. var. rugelii D'Arcy

USDA,2014

Solanum bulbocastanum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum burbankii Bitter

USDA,2014

Solanum campechiense L.

USDA,2014

Solanum candidum Lindl.

USDA,2014

Solanum capsicoides All.

USDA,2014

Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl.

USDA,2014

Solanum carolinense L.

USDA,2014

Solanum carolinense L. var. carolinense

USDA,2014

Solanum carolinense L. var. floridanum (Shuttlw. ex Dunal) Chapm.

USDA,2014

Solanum citrullifolium A. Braun

USDA,2014

Solanum citrullifolium A. Braun var. citrullifolium

USDA,2014

Solanum citrullifolium A. Braun var. setigerum Bartlett

USDA,2014

Solanum clokeyi Munz

USDA,2014

Solanum commersonii Dunal ex Poir.

USDA,2014

Solanum conocarpum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum davisense M.D. Whalen

USDA,2014

Solanum demissum Lindl.

USDA,2014

Solanum dimidiatum Raf.

USDA,2014

Solanum diphyllum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum donianum Walp.

USDA,2014

Solanum douglasii Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum dulcamara L.

USDA,2014

Solanum dulcamara L. var. dulcamara

USDA,2014

Solanum dulcamara L. var. villosissimum Desv.

USDA,2014

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.

USDA,2014

Solanum erianthum D. Don

USDA,2014

Solanum fendleri A. Gray ex Torr.

USDA,2014

Solanum fendleri A. Gray ex Torr. var. fendleri

USDA,2014

Solanum fendleri A. Gray ex Torr. var. texense Correll

USDA,2014

Solanum ferox L.

Solanum L.

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Solanum furcatum Dunal ex Poir.

USDA,2014

Solanum gayanum (Remy) Phil. f.

USDA,2014

Solanum gilo Raddi

USDA,2014

Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.

USDA,2014

Solanum guamense Merr.

USDA,2014

Solanum heterodoxum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum heterodoxum Dunal var. heterodoxum

USDA,2014

Solanum heterodoxum Dunal var. novomexicanum Bartlett

USDA,2014

Solanum heterodoxum Dunal var. setigeroides M.D. Whalen

USDA,2014

Solanum hindsianum Benth.

USDA,2014

Solanum hispidum Pers.

USDA,2014

Solanum hyporhodium A. Braun & Bouche

USDA,2014

Solanum incanum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum incompletum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum interius Rydb.

USDA,2014

Solanum jamaicense Mill.

USDA,2014

Solanum jamesii Torr.

USDA,2014

Solanum jasminoides Paxton

USDA,2014

Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke

USDA,2014

Solanum lanceifolium Jacq.

USDA,2014

Solanum lanceolatum Cav.

USDA,2014

Solanum leptosepalum Correll

USDA,2014

Solanum lumholtzianum Bartlett

USDA,2014

Solanum lycopersicum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) Spooner, G.J. Anderson & R.K. Jansen

USDA,2014

Solanum lycopersicum L. var. lycopersicum

USDA,2014

Solanum macrocarpon L.

USDA,2014

Solanum mammosum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum marginatum L. f.

USDA,2014

Solanum mariannense Hosok.

USDA,2014

Solanum mauritianum Scop.

USDA,2014

Solanum melanocerasum All.

USDA,2014

Solanum melongena L.

USDA,2014

Solanum mucronatum O.E. Schulz

USDA,2014

Solanum muricatum Aiton

USDA,2014

Solanum nelsonii Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti

USDA,2014

Solanum nigrum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum nudum Kunth ex Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum parishii A. Heller

USDA,2014

Solanum peruvianum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum phureja Juz. & Buk.

USDA,2014

Solanum physalifolium Rusby

USDA,2014

Solanum pimpinellifolium Jusl.

USDA,2014

Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal [excluded]

USDA,2014

Solanum polygamum Vahl

USDA,2014

Solanum pseudocapsicum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum pseudogracile Heiser

USDA,2014

Solanum pterocaulon Dunal [excluded]

USDA,2014

Solanum ptycanthum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum pumilum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum pyrifolium Lam.

USDA,2014

Solanum quitoense Lam.

USDA,2014

Solanum racemosum Jacq.

USDA,2014

Solanum riedlei Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum robustum Wendl.

USDA,2014

Solanum rostratum Dunal

Solanum L.

Solanaceae

USDA,2014

Solanum rugosum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum sandwicense Hook. & Arn.

USDA,2014

Solanum scabrum Mill.

USDA,2014

Solanum seaforthianum Andrews

USDA,2014

Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.

USDA,2014

Solanum tampicense Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum tenuilobatum Parish

USDA,2014

Solanum tenuipes Bartlett

USDA,2014

Solanum tenuipes Bartlett var. latisectum M.D. Whalen

USDA,2014

Solanum tenuipes Bartlett var. tenuipes

USDA,2014

Solanum torvum Sw.

USDA,2014

Solanum triflorum Nutt.

USDA,2014

Solanum triquetrum Cav.

USDA,2014

Solanum tuberosum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum umbellatum Mill.

USDA,2014

Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch.

USDA,2014

Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch. var. glabrescens Torr.

USDA,2014

Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch. var. incanum Torr.

USDA,2014

Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch. var. umbelliferum

USDA,2014

Solanum viarum Dunal

USDA,2014

Solanum villosum (L.) Mill.

USDA,2014

Solanum virginianum L.

USDA,2014

Solanum viride G. Forst. ex Spreng.

USDA,2014

Solanum wallacei (A. Gray) Parish

USDA,2014

Solanum wendlandii Hook. f.

USDA,2014

Solanum woodburyi Howard

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray var. glabrescens Parish

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray var. hoffmannii Munz

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray var. intermedium Parish

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray var. montanum Munz

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray var. obispoense (Eastw.) Wiggins

USDA,2014

Solanum xanti A. Gray var. xanti

USDA,2014

Streptosolen jamesonii (Benth.) Miers

Streptosolen Miers

USDA,2014

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal – withania

Withania Pauquy

USDA,2014

Withania frutescens (L.) Pauquy var. grossii Pau

 
 

References and Further Reading

  • Albuquerque LB, Velázquez A, Mayorga-Saucedo R (2006) Solanaceae composition, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in Mexican Mountain Cloud Forest. Acta Bot. Bras., 20(3): 599-613.
  • Barroso GM, Peixoto AL, Ichaso CLF, Costa CG, Guimarães EF, Lima HC (1991) Sistemática de Angiospermas do Brasil. v.3. Viçosa, Universidade Federal de Viçosa.
  • Basu, SK and De, AK (2003) Capsicum: historical and botanical perspectives. In: De, A. K. (edited) Capsicum: The genus Capsicum. Taylor and Francis, UK. Chapter 1. pp. 1-15.
  • Bohs L, Olmstead RG (1997) Phylogenetic relationships in Solanum (Solanaceae) based on ndhF sequences. Syst. Bot., 22: 5-17.
  • Cipollini M, Levey DJ (1997a) Secondary metabolites of fleshy vertebrate-dispersed fruits: adaptive hypotheses and implications for seed dispersal. American Naturalist, 150: 346-372.
  • Cipollini M, Levey DJ (1997b) Antifungal activity of Solanum fruit glyco-alkaloids: implications for frugivory and seed dispersal. Ecology, 78:799-809.
  • D’Arcy WG (1986) Taxonomy and biogeography. Solanaceae biology and systematics. W.G. D’Arcy (ed.) New York, Columbia University Press.
  • Evans WC (1986) Hybridization and secondary metabolism in the Solanaceae. Solanaceae biology and systematics. W.G. D’Arcy (ed.). New York, Columbia University Press.
  • Galindo-González J (1998) Dispersión de semillas por murciélagos: su importancia en la conservación y regeneración del bosque tropical. Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 73: 57-74.
  • Hunziker AT (1979) South American Solanaceae: a synoptic survey. The biology of the Solanaceae. Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Skelding AD (eds.). London, Linnean Society Symposium Series/Academic Press.
  • Rzedowski J, Rzedowski GC (1985) Flora Fanerogámica del Valle de México. v. II. Mexico, Instituto de Ecología, A.C.
  • Tamboia T, Cipollini ML, Levey DJ (1996) An evaluation of vertebrate seed dispersal syndromes in four species of black nightshade (Solanum sect. Solanum). Oecologia, 107: 522-532.
  • USDA (2014) Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Solanaceae. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at: https://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=profile&symbol=Solanaceae&display=63 [Accessed on 28th June, 2014]
  • Williams DE (1993) Lycianthes monziniana (Solanaceae): an underutilized Mexican food plant with “new” crop potential. Economic Botany, 47: 387-400.

 

 
Glossary

Citation

Basu, S., Zandi, P., Cetzal-Ix, W., & Sengupta, R. (2014). Solanaceae: The nightshade family. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/53c843c90cf297dbb4a42504

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