Khangai Mountains alpine meadow

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Orchon River, Mongolia (Photograph by © [WWF-Canon]/Hartmut Jungius)


These alpine meadows in central Mongolia’s Khangai Mountains are mostly level, broken only by occasional sharp peaks, including the highest in central Mongolia, Otgontenger (4031 meters (m)). The ecoregion features abundant streams and springs. Most of Mongolia’s rivers, including the Orkhon and Selenge rivers originate here. Due to the high altitude of this region, faunal diversity is relatively low. Species of note are the Altai pika, ibex, mountain hare and a number of smaller rodents. The ecoregion receives some protection due to its location within Khangai Nuruu National Park. However, the area is vulnerable to such threats as overgrazing by livestock, the rapid spread of logging industries, and recent developments in the mining industry.

Location and General Description

caption WWF

The average altitude of the mountain range is 2000-2500 meters (m) with peaks at 3200-3500 m. The highest peak, Otgontenger, stands at 4031 m above sea level. High mountain meadows above the treeline occur in the top part of the Khangai range at 2350-2800 m. These meadows have unique vegetation consisting of short bushes and thickets and tundra with lichen and moss. Average January and July temperatures are cooler than –20° Celcius and +10° C, respectively. The average annual precipitation is over 400 millimeters (mm). Coldish, coldish-dry and coldish-humid plants dominate due to presence of year-round ice, cool strong winds, a lack of a warm season, and high variation in daily temperature. The high plains of the Khangai mountain range are covered by ancient ice formation, so morraines, landslips and the remainings of it are clearly observable from surrounding areas. Scientists recently discovered that there are 5 periods of ice formation in the Khangai. Nowadays, however, the only location with permanent snow is Otgontenger Mountain.

Biodiversity Features

The vegetation of this ecoregion is comprised of plant species that are characteristic of both the Siberian taiga forest and the Mongolian steppe. Primary plant species include pine (Pinus silvestris), aspen (Populus tremuls), and edelweiss (Leontopodium ochroleucum) in lower parts of the range, while at higher altitudes above the tree line low schrubs and herbs, sedges, grasses, mosses, and algae and lichens can be found. Of special interest are spp. of Himalayan origin such as milkwort (Lancea tibetica) and Kobresia moujr. At the higher altitudes there are marshy meadows with Kobresi spp., Carex kobresia and various herbs.

Due to the high altitude, faunal diversity in this ecoregion is relatively low. The only species that occurs at a moderate density is the Altai pika (Ochotona alpina) though Ibex (Capra sibirica), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), and some small rodents can be found at lower densities. Notable bird species composition includes snowcock (Tetragallus altaicus) and dotterel (Eudromias morinellus).

Current Status

The Khangai Mountain alpine meadow and tundra ecoregion is adequately protected by Khangai Nuruu National Park (8,885,000 hectares (ha)) which comprises the main ranges of this unique ecoregion.

Types and Severity of Threats

Overgrazing is a potential threat to the biodiversity and environment of this region. The number of livestock, which are a traditional income generator for the local community, is increasing in surrounding areas. This leads to the movement of wildlife populations (e.g., Ibex and Elk) to higher altitudes. In addition, the rapid spread of logging industries in recent years has led to altered river flows and changes in the patterns of animal distribution. The development of a gold mining industry in the past few years has also caused considerable problems for the integrity of this ecoregion.

Justification of Ecoregion Delineation

The Khangai Mountains in Central Mongolia are topographically isolated from other mountains in Middle Asia. The line delineation corresponds to the Khangai high mountain region in Hilbig and the Mongolia Ministry for Nature and Environment.

Additional information on this ecoregion

Further Reading

  • Bold, A. 1969. Bird research report of Khangai mountain region, Ulaanbaatar (in Mongolian).
  • Dulamtseren, D. and D. Tsendjav. 1989. Mammals of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (in Mongolian).
  • Gunin.P. D., E. A. Vostocova, and E. N. Matushkin. 1998. Preservation of ecosystems of inner Asia. Russian-Mongolian joint complex expedition, Moscow (in Mongolian).
  • Hilbig, W. 1995. The vegetation of Mongolia. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam.
  • Mongolia Ministry for Nature and Environment, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF), and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). 1996. Mongolia’s Wild Heritage, edited by C. Finch. Avery Press, Boulder, Colorado. ISBN: 0937321044
  • Murzaev. E. M. 1962. Geography of Mongolian People’s Republic, Moscow (in Russian).
  • Sokolov, V. E. and A. Bold. editors. 1996. Rare species of Mongolia (vertebrates) (In Mongolian).
  • Tsevegmed, S. 1969. Geography of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (in Mongolian).
  • Ulziikhutag, N. 1989. Flora of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (in Mongolian).
  • UNDP. 1998. Biological diversity of Mongolia (National Report), Ulaanbaatar. MNE, UNDP, GEF.



Disclaimer: This article is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally published by, the World Wildlife Fund. Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth may have edited its content or added new information. The use of information from the World Wildlife Fund should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content.






Fund, W. (2014). Khangai Mountains alpine meadow. Retrieved from


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