Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests

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Tiger (Panthera tigris), Thailand. (Photograph by Sean Austin)


This small ecoregion along the northern reaches of the Mekong River represents a transition from the dry forests of the Khorat Plateau to the moister forests of the Annamite Mountains. Like most ecotone habitats, the ecoregion contains a mix of species from dry and mesic habitats, increasing the overall biodiversity. But again, like many productive habitats that lie along river plains, much of the natural habitat has been cleared for agriculture.

Location and General Description

The Northern Khorat Plateau Moist Deciduous Forests are located in the middle Mekong River Valley, along the border of Thailand and Laos. The average annual rainfall for Nong Khai Province for the period 1956-1985 was 1,629 millimeters (mm), and mean minimum and maximum temperatures were 21.6 and 31.8, respectively.

caption WWF

The floristic structure of mixed deciduous forests in the Mekong Valley of southern Laos and adjacent areas of northeastern Cambodia suggests an intermediate ecological habitat between more mesic semi-evergreen forests and more xeric deciduous dipterocarp forests. Lowlands in this area commonly receive 2,000-3,000 mm of precipitation annually, with five to six months of dry season.

In many respects these forests represent a deciduous form of semi-evergreen forest and therefore are similar to the Central Indochina Dry Forests. The most common canopy species are Lagerstroemia angustifolia, Afzelia xylocarpa, Xylia xylocarpa, Peltophorum dasyrrachis, and Pterocarpus macrocarpus. In some areas, Lagerstroemia may form almost single-species dominance. In northern Cambodia, there is a transition between mixed deciduous forest and forms of semi-evergreen forest where deciduous species exhibit a strong co-dominance with evergreen species. Any separation of such types along this transition is somewhat arbitrary. This separation is complicated by the fact that many taxa such as Xylia, Pterocarpus, Lagerstroemia, and Irvingia have a wide range of ecological tolerance and are found in deciduous dipterocarp woodlands and mixed deciduous and semi-evergreen forest communities.

Biodiversity Features

Within this ecoregion, dry evergreen forest contains much greater mammalian diversity than deciduous forest because no arboreal mammals are known to feed on the fruit or foliage of any dipterocarp except for Shorea platyclados. Several endangered species live here, including the pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximusas), and several threatened species such as wild dog (Cuon alpinus), Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus), sun bear (Ursus malayanus), clouded leopard (Pardofelis nebulosa), and common leopard (Panthera pardus). Tiger (Panthera tigris), gaur (Bos gaurus), and banteng (Bos javanicus) probably have already disappeared from the Thai portions of this area. The ecoregion overlaps with a Level II Tiger Conservation Unit (TCU).

There appear to be significant differences in the forest bird community on the Lao and Thai banks of the Mekong River. The Indochinese endemic red-collared woodpecker (Picus rabieri) has been found at Sangthong, Lao PDR but not as far on the Thai bank.

Some sections of the Mekong River in this ecoregion are outstanding examples of upper perennial riverine habitat, with exposed bedrock, sand, and shingle bars and rapids. Extensive areas are covered by Homonoia riparia scrub (Euphorbiaceae), which support what is probably the largest population of the scarce Jerdon's bushchat (Saxicola jerdoni) known anywhere in southeast Asia. A few great thick-knees (Esacus recurvirostris) are also present, as are river lapwings (Vanellus duvaucelii) and plain martins (Riparia paludicola). All these species are nationally at risk in Thailand and Laos.

Current Status

The five protected areas cover 1,965 square kilometers (km2 ) (12 percent) of the ecoregion (Table 1). The IUCN category on three of the protected areas is unknown, and so is the extent to which the ecoregion's biodiversity is protected.

Table 1. WCMC Protected Areas That Overlap with the Ecoregion.
Protected Area Area (km2) IUCN Category
Phu Phan National Park 645  ?
Huai Huat National Park 830  ?
Phu Sri Than WS 250  ?
Phu Wua 190 IV
Phu Kao-Phu Phan Kham 50 II
Total 1,965  
Ecoregion numbers of protected areas that overlap with additional ecoregions are listed in brackets.

Types and Severity of Threats

Most larger bird and mammal species have been greatly reduced or extirpated. A few elephants remain inside Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary. Hunting by ethnic Lao people is even more ubiquitous than in northern Thailand for example, so that even common, open country birds are scarcer here than in many other ecoregions. Use of fire by hunters and farmers is widespread and continues to degrade remaining forest. Human use of fisheries on the Mekong River is almost certainly unsustainable, and other forms of human use (e.g., recreation, ferry traffic) place added pressure on riparian habitats.

Justification of Ecoregion Delineation

The tropical moist deciduous forests to the west and northwest of the Luang Prabang Range in northwestern Thailand and Laos are an extension of the teak (Tectona grandis)-dominated deciduous forests, but the vegetation community of the moist deciduous forests in the Meking plains, near Vientianne, are dominated by Fabaceae, Lythraceae, and Rubiaceae. Therefore, these forests were placed in separate ecoregions, the former in the Northern Thailand-Laos Moist Deciduous Forests and the latter in the Northern Khorat Plateau Moist Deciduous Forests.

Additional information on this ecoregion




Disclaimer: This article is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally published by, the World Wildlife Fund. Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth may have edited its content or added new information. The use of information from the World Wildlife Fund should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content.




Fund, W. (2014). Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests. Retrieved from


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