Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests

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Dalmatian islands scrub on stony hills. @ C.Michael Hogan

The Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests ecoregion is a forest, woodland, and scrub ecoregion along Italy’s southern coastal zone and the surrounding islands of the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

Zingaro Nature Reserve, Italy. Source: Michele Depraz

This ecoregion supports a rich diversity of flora and fauna. The floral endemism rate is high, and numerous relict and threatened plant species are found here. Two rare and endemic herbivore subspecies, Mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) and Corsican Red Deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus), persist on islands. A wide range of birds can be found here, including a number of endemic species, such as Marmora's Warbler (Sylvia sarda), and threatened raptors including Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus), Eleonora’s Falcon (Falco eleonorae), Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus), Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes), and Bonelli’s Eagle (Aquila fasciata). Endemic amphibia and reptile species and a large number of threatened butterfly species are also associated with certain parts of the ecoregion.

In addition to coastal tourism development and urbanization, the ecoregion is threatened by water shortage and pollution issues, forest fires, and unsustainable collection of rare plants.

Location and general description

The Thyrrenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests extend along the coastal lowlands of the southern half of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily and Corsica. They include Sardinian Island and the Dalmatian Islands.

caption Source: WWF

The ecoregion experiences very hot and dry summers and relatively temperate and humid to subhumid winters. Annual average temperatures range from 10-17ºC, and the minimum average temperature of the coldest month ranges from 5-10º C. The annual rainfall ranges from 400 to 1200 millimeters (mm). From a geological point of view, three major systems can be distinguished. Paleozoic substrates such as granite, schist, micaschist, diorite, and gneiss are found on Corsica and Sardinia. Volcanic rock forms the surrounds of the active Vesubio Volcano in Campania and the foothills of the Etna volcano in Sicily. Mesozoic substrates, specifically limestone, marl, and sandstone form the southern Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Malta, and the Dalmatian islands. 

caption Maremma Natural Park, Italy. (Source: Photograph by Marco Pagliani)

The ecoregion has four major forest zones. The Thyrrenian mixed oak forests are characterized by the predominance of mixed sclerophyllous evergreen oak (Quercus ilex, Q. suber) and deciduous (Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Ostrya carpinifolia) species. Stone pine (Pinus pinea) constitutes important forests of certain coastal sand dunes, for example at Maremma Natural Park. Relict hygrophilous temperate deciduous oak forests (Quercus robur) appear locally in certain coastal wetlands of the Italian Peninsula (i.e. Circeo National Park) and on Corsica.

The southeastern Italian woodlands, in the Puglia region, are distinguished by the appearance of a number of Eastern Mediterranean endemic oak species such as Macedonian Oak (Quercus trojana) and Valonia Oak (Q. macrolepis), together with the more abundant sclerophyllous Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) and deciduous oak (Quercus pubescens) species. Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) locally constitutes significant forest stands.

Set in the Adriatic Sea, the Dalmatian Island forests show a predominance of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The Dalmatian Islands host a very interesting relict and endemic pine, Pinus nigra dalmatica.

The Malta islands host one of two European relict populations of the North African endemic conifer Berber Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata).

Biodiversity features

caption ''Euphorbia dendroides'', Sicily, Italy. (Source: Photograph by Pedro Regato / WWF MedPO)

The ecoregion supports a high degree of plant diversity. with the flora endemism rate is approximately ten percent for the ecoregion as a whole. For example, Sardinia hosts 2054 plant species, of which 206 are endemic; the Dalmatian islands host 2700 species, of which 179 are endemic. The ecoregion includes an important number of relict species including Quercus macrolepis, Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica, Platanus orientalis, Alnus cordata, Tetraclinis articulata, Thymus capitatus, and Styrax officinalis. Also present are a number of threatened plant species included in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and national Red List of vascular plants, Salvia fruticosaPortenschlagiella ramosissimaOrnithogalum visianicum, Orchis quadripunctata, Iris adriatica, Geranium dalmaticum, Euphorbia rigida and Dianthus multinervis.

This ecoregion has significant faunal diversity, though the number of endemic species is not high. Two rare and endemic herbivores, Mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) and Corsican Red Deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus), still persist in the Sardinian forests. The ecoregion also hosts a high diversity of birds, including a number of endemic species, such as Sylvia sarda, as well as threatened raptors including Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus), Eleonora’s Falcon (Falco eleonorae), Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus), Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes), and Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus).

Endemic amphibian and reptile species are also well represented in Sardinia and certain other parts of the ecoregion. Thirteen endemic forms of Dalmatian Wall Lizard (Podarcis melisellensis), each living on only one small island, have been described in Dalmatia. A large number of threatened butterfly species are also related to this ecoregion, specifically, the Dalmatian islands threatened species: Eastern Wood White (Leptidea duponcheli), Southern Swallowtail (Papilio alexanor), Apollo Butterfly (Parnassius apollo), Dusky Large Blue (Maculinea nausithous), False Ringlet (Coenonympha oedippus), Dalmatian Eastern Festoon (Zerinthia cerisy dalmacijae) and Proterebia phegea dalmata.


caption Roman ruins at Salona. @ C.Michael Hogan This ecoregion is the locus of significant early human settlement and civilisation, tracing recorded history to the Illyrian peoples. The eartliest local settlement whose ruins are extant are arguably the Roman city of Salona, birthplace of Emperor Diocletian, who erected the largest intact Roman palace outside of Italy, the Diocletian Palace. The Roman presence was the first example of overexploitation of resources in the region, with withdrawal of a large fraction of the surface waters of the Jadroo River to support approximately 10,000 people at the Diocletian Palace by the third century AD. Limestone for the palace was quarried locally and all the marble was brought to the palace site from the near coastal Dalmatian islands within the Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests ecoregion.

Ecoregion status

The ecoregion has lost the majority of its forest cover, mainly as a result of agriculture, overgrazing, and urban development. Human population is considerable, but mainly concentrated in the coastal areas. Outstanding and extensive Aleppo Pine and Holm Oak forests still cover large portions of the Dalmatian Islands. The ecoregion is also distinguished by a manmade semi-natural sylvopastoral landscape, typical of Sardinian Island, and formed by extensive semi-natural cork oak woodlands. These have historically represented very efficient and rational multipurpose management systems, adapted to the adverse environmental conditions imposed by low quality soils and a harsh climate.

Ecoregion threats

Major threats are related to a number of different human activities. These include coastal tourism development and urbanization; intensive agriculture through irrigation systems, conversion of natural habitat to agricultural land, overuse and pollution of surface water bodies; forest fires, chiefly arising from human negligence and arson; unsustainable collection of rare, wild plant species; hunting; and the spread of invasive species, promoted by human-induced changes to the coastal zone, i.e, exotic species introduced for gardening, such as Hottentot Fig (Carpobrotus edulis) and  American Century Plant (Agave americana).

Justification of ecoregion delineation

This ecoregion is essentially equivalent to the DMEER unit of the same name. The boundaries of this unit are primarily a product of the DMEER delineation process. The ecoregion generally includes the meso-Mediterranean Holm Oak forests, Wild Olive-Locust Tree formations in extreme south of Italy and Sicily as well as small areas of sub-Mediterranean and meso-supra-Mediterranean Downy Oak forests.

Further reading

  • U.Bohn, G.Gollub, and C.Hettwer. 2000. Reduced general map of the natural vegetation of Europe. 1:10 million. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 2000.
  • G.Bonin, J.Briane and J.Gamisans 1976. Quelques aspects de forêts supraméditerranéennes et montagnardes de l'Apennin meridional. Ecologia Mediterranea, 1.
  • G.Bonin,  J.Gamisans 1976. Contribution á l’etude des forêts de l’étage supramediterranéen de l'Italie méridionale. Documents phytosoc., Lilie.
  • L.Brigand et al. 1991. Les iles en Mediterranee, enjeux et perspectives. Les Fascicules du Plan Bleu 5. Economica Ed. Paris.
  • F.Bulgarini et al. 1998. Libro rosso degli animali d’Italia. Vertebrati. WWfFF, Rome.
  • F.Conti et al. 1992. Libro rosso delle piante d’Italia. WWF, Rome.
  • O.Delanoë et al. 1996. Conservation of Mediterranean Island Plants. IUCN Publication Service, Cambridge. ISBN: 2831703514
  • M.Delaugerre and M. Cheylan 1992. Batraciens et Reptiles de Corse. Parc Naturel Regional de Corse. ISBN: 2905468092
  • Digital Map of European Ecological Regions (DMEER), Version 2000/05. Digital map of european ecological regions.
  • C.Gomez Campo. 1985. Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Ecosystems. Junk Ed. (Geobotanica 7).
  • M.F.Heath and Evans, M.I., editors. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. Vol 2: Southern Europe. BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No: 8). ISBN: 0946888361
  • C.Michael Hogan. 2007. Diocletian's Palace. Megalithic Portal. ed. A.Burnham
  • I.Horvat, V. Glavac and H. Ellenberg 1974. Vegetation Südosteuropas. Stuttgart. ISBN: 3437301683
  • S.Horvat. 1957. Pflanzengeographische Gliederung des Karstes Kroatiens und der angrenzenden Gebiete Jugoslawiens. Acta bot. croat. 16.
  • S.Horvat. 1963. Pflanzengeographische Stellung und Gliederung des ostadriatischen Küstenlandes im Lichte der neuesten phytocoenologischen Untersuchungen. Acta bot. croat. 22.
  • A.Kutle, editor. 2000. An overview of the State of Biological and Landscape Diversity of Croatia with the Protection Strategy and Action Pans. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. Zagreb.
  • H.Mayer. 1984. Wälder Europas. Gustav Fisher Verlag. Stuttgart
  • F.Medail and Quezel, P. 1997. Hotspots Analysis for Conservation of Plant Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin. Ann. Missouri Gard. 84
  • Miljani?, M. [ed.] 1994. Crvena Knjiga, biljnih vrsta, Republike Hrvatske. Ministarstvo Graditeljstva I Zaštitu Okoliša, Zagreb.
  • Pignatti, S. 1998. I Boschi d’Italia. Sinecologia e Biodiversità. UTET, Roma.
  • Ramsar database. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.
  • Sarà, M. 1998. I Mammiferi delle isole del Mediterraneo. EPOS Ed. Palermo.
  • Shackleton, D.M., editor, and the IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group. 1997. Wild Sheep and their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2831703530
  • Water, K.S., and Gillett, H.J., editors. 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by WCMC. IUCN, Publication Service Unit, Cambridge.
  • WWF and IUCN. 1994. Centres of Plant Diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. 3 Volumes. IUCN Publication Service Unit. Cambridge. ISBN: 2831701988
  • WWF. 2001. The Mediterranean forests. A new conservation strategy. WWF, MedPO, Rome.
  • WWF. In preparation. Mediterranean Forest Gap Analysis Database. WWF, MedPO, Rome.


Disclaimer: This article contains certain information that was originally published by the World Wildlife Fund. Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth have edited its content and added new information. The use of information from the World Wildlife Fund should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content.











Fund, W., & Hogan, C. (2014). Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests. Retrieved from


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